Dedicate Daf 2a to:



Chapter One

Mishna
The Mishna asks:
מאימתי קורין את שמע בערבין.
From what time may the
nighttime
Shema be recited?

The Mishna cites three answers:
משעה שהכהנים נכנסים לאכול בתרומתן עד סוף האשמורה הראשונה דברי רבי אליעזר.
1.
Rabbi Eliezer says that it's between the time the Kohanim enter
their house
to eat of their Terumah, until the end of the first watch.

 
Discussed on the .
 
 
וחכמים אומרים עד חצות
2.
The Sages say
that one may read the Shema
until midnight.

רבן גמליאל אומר עד שיעלה עמוד השחר
3.
Rabban Gamliel says
that one may read the Shema
until dawn.

 
 
 
מעשה ובאו בניו מבית המשתה אמרו לו לא קרינו את שמע
It once happened that
Rabban Gamliel's
sons returned from a feast
after midnight
and asked him, "We have not yet read the Shema!"
What do we do?

Rabban Gamliel answered:
אמר להם
He told them,

אם לא עלה עמוד השחר חייבין אתם לקרות
"If the dawn has not yet risen, you must still recite it.

ולא זו בלבד אמרו אלא כל מה שאמרו חכמים עד חצות מצותן עד שיעלה עמוד השחר
And not only
is this true about the Shema prayer,
but wherever the Sages use the expression 'Until midnight,' the obligation continues until dawn.

Rabban Gamliel cites two examples of Mitzvos which should be done by midnight but may be done by dawn:
הקטר חלבים ואברים מצותן עד שיעלה עמוד השחר
1.
The duty of burning the fat and parts of the animal continues until dawn.

וכל הנאכלים ליום אחד מצותן עד שיעלה עמוד השחר
2.
All offerings which have to be eaten the same day
they are sacrificed may be eaten until
dawn.

So why do the Sages say that they must be done by midnight?
אם כן למה אמרו חכמים עד חצות
If so, why do the Sages say "Until midnight"?

Rabban Gamliel answered:
כדי להרחיק אדם מן העבירה:
In order to keep a man far from transgression.

Gemara
:גמ:
Gemara

The Gemara asks two questions:
תנא היכא קאי דקתני מאימתי
1.
What is the Tanna's
source that the Shema is to be read at all,
that he raises the question: From what time?

ותו מאי שנא דתני בערבית ברישא
2.
Why does he
discuss
the evening
Shema before the morning Shema

לתני דשחרית ברישא
Let him first deal with
the Shema
of the morning!

 
As one should begin the Mishna with day and light instead of with night and darkness. (Shita Mekubetzes)
 
 
The Gemara cites two answers:
תנא אקרא קאי דכתיב בשכבך ובקומך
1.
The Tanna
teaches the Mishna based on the verse
"When you lie down and when you rise up."

והכי קתני
His statement in
the Mishna is to be understood thus:

זמן קריאת שמע דשכיבה אימת
When is the time for reading the lying down Shema?

משעה שהכהנים נכנסין לאכול בתרומתן
Between the time the Kohanim enter
their house
to eat of their Terumah, until the end of the first watch.

ואי בעית אימא יליף מברייתו של עולם
2. The Mishna began by discussing the evening Shema
because
in the order of
Creation
the day follows the night,

דכתיב ויהי ערב ויהי בקר יום אחד
As
a verse says
: "It was evening and it was morning, one day"

The Gemara Asks:
אי הכי סיפא דקתני בשחר מברך שתים לפניה ואחת לאחריה ובערב מברך שתים לפניה ושתים לאחריה .
If so, the teaches: In the morning
the reading of the Shema
is preceded by two blessings and is followed by one; in the evening it is preceded by two blessings and followed by two.

לתני דערבית ברישא
Let him likewise discuss of the evening
Shema
first!

The Gemara Answers:
תנא פתח בערבית והדר תני בשחרית
The Tanna began with the evening
Shema
and then discussed the morning
Shema,

עד דקאי בשחרית פריש מילי דשחרית והדר פריש מילי דערבית:
Since the Tanna was on the subject
of the morning
Shema
, he explains
the laws of the
morning
Shema blessings,
and
only
afterwards explains
laws of
the evening Shema's
blessings.

 
 
 
 
אמר מר
The teacher stated:

משעה שהכהנים נכנסים לאכול בתרומתן.
From the time the Kohanim
may
enter
their house
to partake of their Terumah.

The Gemara Asks:
מכדי כהנים אימת קא אכלי תרומה
When do the Kohanim partake of their Terumah?

משעת צאת הכוכבים
From the time the stars appear.

לתני משעת צאת הכוכבים.
Then
why does the Mishna not explicitly
teach: "From the time of the appearance of the stars"!

The Gemara Answers:
מלתא אגב אורחיה קמשמע לן
The
Mishna
wishes to teach us something incidentally:

כהנים אימת קא אכלי בתרומה
When
may
Kohanim partake of their Terumah?

משעת צאת הכוכבים
From the time the stars appear.

והא קמשמע לן דכפרה לא מעכבא
Thereby informs us that
the omission of
the sin - offering does not prevent
the Kohen from eating of the Terumah
.

 
There are three stages of ritual purification:
 
1. Mikvah
2. Sunset
3. A sacrifice.
 
To purify oneself (from most impurities), one is required to go to Mikvah during the day and wait for sunset.
Some impurities (such as a Zav, Zavah, a Metzora and a woman who gave birth), however, require one to also bring a sacrifice. The Mishna teaches that while one may not eat sacrificial foods or go into the Beis Hamikdash before bringing the sacrifice, one may eat Terumah.
 
 
כדתניא
As the
following Braisa
teaches:

ובא השמש וטהר
"When the sun is down and it is clean."

ביאת שמשו מעכבתו מלאכול בתרומה ואין כפרתו מעכבתו מלאכול בתרומה.
The setting of the sun prevents him from partaking of the Terumah, but not
his failure to bring
his sin - offering.

The Gemara Asks:
וממאי דהאי ובא השמש ביאת השמש והאי וטהר טהר יומא
What is the source
, however, that the phrase "When the sun is down" means the setting of the sun, and the phrase "It is clean" means the day is clean
of light (after sunset)
?






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Dedicated in loving memory of Leah Rivka Bas Reb Dovid HaKohen A"H.
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