Dedicate Daf 13a to:



לא שיעקר יעקב ממקומו אלא ישראל עיקר ויעקב טפל לו
It's not that he's no longer called Yaakov, but that Israel will be main
name
and Yaakov secondary.

וכן הוא אומר אל תזכרו ראשונות וקדמוניות אל תתבוננו
Similarly,
the verse says
"Remember not the former things, nor consider the things of old" -

אל תזכרו ראשונות זה שעבוד מלכיות וקדמוניות אל תתבוננו זו יציאת מצרים הנני עושה חדשה עתה תצמח
"Remember not the former things," i.e. the
exile,
"nor consider the things of old," i.e. the Exodus. "Behold I will do a new thing; now shall it spring forth"

תני רב יוסף זו מלחמת גוג ומגוג
Rav Yosef taught: This refers to the war of Gog and Magog.

משל למה הדבר דומה לאדם שהיה מהלך בדרך ופגע בו זאב וניצל ממנו והיה מספר והולך מעשה זאב
To what can this be compared to? To a man walking by the way, when a wolf attacked him and he was rescued from it; he would then tell the story of his encounter with the wolf.

פגע בו ארי וניצל ממנו והיה מספר והולך מעשה ארי
Later on
a lion attacked him and he was rescued from it; so he would then tell the story of his encounter with the wolf.

פגע בו נחש וניצל ממנו שכח מעשה שניהם והיה מספר והולך מעשה נחש
After that
a serpent attacked him and he was rescued from it; so he forgets his two previous adventures, and relates the incident of the serpent.

אף כך ישראל צרות אחרונות משכחות את הראשונות:
So is it also with Israel; later troubles cause the former to be forgotten.

 
 
 
אברם הוא אברהם בתחלה נעשה אב לארם ולבסוף נעשה אב לכל העולם כולו
"Avram, the same is Avraham". At first he was made the father of Aram, but subsequently the father of all the universe.

שרי היא שרה בתחלה נעשית שרי לאומתה ולבסוף נעשית שרה לכל העולם כולו:
Sarai, the same is Sarah. At first she was made princess of her own people, but subsequently princess of all the universe.

 
 
 
תני בר קפרא
Bar Kappara taught:

כל הקורא לאברהם אברם עובר בעשה
Whoever calls Avraham "Abram" violates a positive command,

שנאמר והיה שמך אברהם
As
the verse
said "Your name shall be Avraham"

רבי אליעזר אומר עובר בלאו
Rabbi Eliezer says: He transgresses a prohibition ; as it is said,

שנאמר ולא יקרא עוד
את
שמך אברם
"Your name shall no more be called Avram"

The Gemara Asks:
אלא מעתה הקורא לשרה שרי הכי נמי
But now, this should also apply to one who calls Sarah "Sarai"?

התם קודשא בריך הוא אמר לאברהם שרי אשתך לא תקרא את שמה שרי כי שרה שמה
In her case, Hashem said to Avraham "As for Sarai your wife,
you
shall not call her name Sarai, but Sarah shall her name be".

 
But everyone else may still call her Sarai.
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
אלא מעתה הקורא ליעקב יעקב ה"נ
=הכי נמי
So why doesn't the same Halacha apply
to one who calls Yaakov "Yaakov"
(and not Yisrael)?

The Gemara Answers:
שאני התם דהדר אהדריה קרא דכתיב ויאמר אלהים לישראל במראות הלילה ויאמר יעקב יעקב
Yaakov still kept his name,
since the verse repeats
his old name:
"And Hashem spoke to Israel in the visions of the night, and said, Yaakov, Yaakov".

The Gemara Asks:
מתיב רבי יוסי בר אבין ואיתימא רבי יוסי בר זבידא
Rabbi Yossi bar Avin (others declare it was Rabbi Yossi bar Zevida) asked:

אתה הוא ה'
=השם
האלהים אשר בחרת באברם
The verse says
"You are Hashem the G - d, Who chose Avram"

 
Which was said long (In Nechemia, during the Second Beis Hamikdash ) after he had his name change, so it should show that he also has two names?
 
 
The Gemara Answers:
אמר ליה התם נביא הוא דקא מסדר לשבחיה דרחמנא מאי דהוה מעיקרא:
This verse is
the prophet praising Hashem by repeating what had happened from the beginning.

 
When Avraham was still called Avram.
 
 
Chapter Two

Mishna
קורא בתורה והגיע זמן המקרא אם כוון לבו יצא
If one was reading
the section of the Shema
from the Torah, and the time of reciting the Shema arrived, if he
paid attention,
he has fulfilled his obligation
to say the Shema.

The Gemara will now discuss when one may interrupt the Shema:
בפרקים שואל מפני הכבוד ומשיב ובאמצע שואל מפני היראה ומשיב דברי ר'
=רבי
מאיר
1.
Rabbi Meir says that one may interrupt between the paragraphs to greet a man out of respect for him and return a greeting; In the middle
of the paragraphs
one may greet a man because of fear for him and return a greeting.

ר'
=רבי
יהודה אומר באמצע שואל מפני היראה ומשיב מפני הכבוד ובפרקים שואל מפני הכבוד ומשיב שלום לכל אדם
Rabbi Yehuda says that in the middle
of the paragraphs
, one may greet a man because of fear for him, and return a greeting out of respect; and between the paragraphs, one may greet a man out of respect for him and return a greeting to any person.

 
 
Opinion Between the Paragraphs In the Paragraphs
Rabbi Meir Ask / Answer out of respect Ask / Answer out of fear
Rabbi Yehuda Ask out of respect / Answer to anyone Ask out of fear / Answer out of respect
 
 
 
אלו הן בין הפרקים
The following are "between the sections":

בין ברכה ראשונה לשניה בין שניה לשמע בין שמע לוהיה אם שמוע בין והיה אם שמוע לויאמר בין ויאמר לאמת ויציב
Between the first blessing and the second, between the second and Shema; between Shema and "And it shall come to pass if you shall listen", between "And it shall come to pass if you shall listen" and "And the Hashem spoke"; between "And the Hashem spoke" and "True and firm."

ר'
=רבי
יהודה אומר בין ויאמר לאמת ויציב לא יפסיק
Rabbi Yehuda says: One must make no interruption between "And Hashem spoke" and "True and firm.

The Gemara Asks:
אמר ר'
=רבי
יהושע בן קרחה למה קדמה פרשת שמע לוהיה אם שמוע
Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korcha said: Why does the section of "Hear O Israel" precede "And it shall come to pass if you shall listen?"

The Gemara Answers:
כדי שיקבל עליו עול מלכות שמים תחלה ואחר כך מקבל עליו עול מצות
So that one will first accept upon himself the yoke of heaven, and afterwards receive upon himself the yoke of the commandments.

The Gemara Asks:
והיה אם שמוע לויאמר
And why does
"And it shall came to pass if you shall listen" precede "And Hashem spoke"?

The Gemara Answers:
שוהיה אם שמוע נוהג בין ביום ובין בלילה ויאמר אינו נוהג אלא ביום בלבד:
Because the former applies both during the day and night, but the latter
(the commandment of wearing Tzitzis)
applies only during the day.

Gemara
The Gemara Asks:
ש"מ
=שמע מינא
מצות צריכות כוונה
Can one conclude
from the opening sentence of the Mishna
that the performance of the commandments requires intent?

The Gemara Answers:
מאי אם כוון לבו לקרות לקרות
No, as
what does
the Mishna
mean
when it says
"If he intends to read?"
It means that he intended to read the Torah for the sake of study, but not for the sake of saying the Shema.

The Gemara Asks:
והא קא קרי
But he was reading!

 
Which implies that commandments require intent!
 
 
The Gemara Answers:
בקורא להגיה:
It means that if he would have
read
from the Torah
for the purpose of correcting
it, he would not have fulfilled his obligation, as it's likely that he skipped words.

 
 
 
ת"ר
=תנו רבנן
A Braisa
taught:

ק"ש
=קריעת שמע
ככתבה דברי רבי
Rebbi said: The Shema must be read as it is written.

וחכ"א
=וחכמים אומרים
בכל לשון
But the Sages say:
It may be read
in any language.

The Gemara Asks:
מ"ט
=מאי טעמא
דרבי
What is Rebbi's reason?

The Gemara Answers:
אמר קרא והיו בהוייתן יהו
The verse says, "And these words shall be" - as they are
written in Hebrew,
so must they remain.

The Gemara Asks:
ורבנן מאי טעמייהו
And what is the reason of the Sages?

אמר קרא שמע בכל לשון שאתה שומע
The verse says, "Hear, O Israel" -
One can say it in
any language which one understands.

The Gemara Asks:
ולרבי נמי הא כתיב שמע
But
what does
Rabbi do
with the word
"Hear, O Israel"?

The Gemara Answers:
ההוא מבעי ליה השמע לאזניך מה שאתה מוציא מפיך
He uses it to establish the rule that
one has to
hear oneself saying
the Shema.

The Gemara Asks:
ורבנן
And the Sages?

The Gemara Answers:
סברי להו כמאן דאמר לא השמיע לאזנו יצא
They hold that if one does not read
the Shema
audibly, he has still fulfilled his obligation.

The Gemara Asks:
ולרבנן נמי הא כתיב והיו
But
what do the
Sages
do with the verse
"And these words shall be"?

The Gemara Answers:
ההוא מבעי להו שלא יקרא למפרע
They require it to establish the rule that one must not read
the sentences of the Shema
out of order.

The Gemara Asks:
ורבי שלא יקרא למפרע מנא ליה
How does
Rebbi derive
that one may not read the Shema out of order?

The Gemara Answers:
נפקא ליה מדברים הדברים
He derives it from the fact that the text states "these words shall be" and not "the words shall be."

The Gemara Asks:
ורבנן
And
what do
the Sages
do with this?

The Gemara Answers:
דברים הדברים לא דרשי
They don't expound
the extra "Hei".

 
 
Verse The Sages Rebbi
"And these words shall be" One must not read
the sentences of the Shema
out of order.
As they are
written in Hebrew,
so must they remain.
"Hear, O Israel"
One can say the Shema in
any language which one understands.
One has to
hear oneself saying
the Shema.
"
These
words shall be"
They don't expound
the extra "Hei".
One may not read the Shema out of order?
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
למימרא דסבר רבי דכל התורה כולה בכל לשון נאמרה
Can one
say that Rabbi holds that the whole Torah can be read in any language?

דאי סלקא דעתך בלשון הקודש נאמרה והיו דכתב רחמנא למה לי
For if the Shema may be read only in Hebrew,
Why does the Torah write
"and these words shall be"?

 
Why would we think that the Shema has different Halachas than any other Torah reading?
 
 
The Gemara Answers:
איצטריך משום דכתיב שמע
It is necessary because
the verse writes
"Hear, O Israel."

The Gemara Asks:
למימרא דסברי רבנן דכל התורה כולה בלשון הקודש נאמרה דאי סלקא דעתך בכל לשון נאמרה שמע דכתב רחמנא למה לי
Can one imply that
the Sages hold that the whole Torah must be read in Hebrew, For if
one would be permitted to read from the Torah
in any language, what
does the verse say
"Hear, O Israel"?

The Gemara Answers:
איצטריך משום דכתיב והיו:
It is necessary because
the verse writes
"And these words shall be."

 
 
 
The Gemara will not discuss how much intent one must have during the Shema reading:
ת"ר
=תנו רבנן
The Sages taught
in a Braisa:

והיו שלא יקרא למפרע
"And these words shall be" means that one must not recite
the sentences of the Shema
out of order.

הדברים על לבבך
"These words... upon your heart"

יכול תהא כל הפרשה צריכה כוונה תלמוד לומר האלה
One might
have thought that the
whole paragraph requires intent, therefore the
verse says
"These words...
shall be upon your heart
,"

עד כאן צריכה כוונה מכאן ואילך אין צריכה כוונה דברי ר'
=רבי
אליעזר
That is to say,
one must have intent
only until these words,
but not from this point onward. These are the words of Rabbi Eliezer.






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Dedicated in loving memory of Leah Rivka Bas Reb Dovid HaKohen A"H.
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