Dedicate Daf 20b to:



ומן התפלין וחייבין בתפלה ובמזוזה ובברכת המזון:
And from Tefillin; but they are obligated to pray, have a Mezuzah
on their door
and say Grace after meals.

Gemara
The Gemara will now ask why the Mishna had to teach these laws:
The Gemara Asks:
ק"ש פשיטא מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא הוא וכל מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא נשים פטורות
It's obvious
that women are exempt from saying Shema,
as they are time - bound commandments, and women are exempt from all
time bound commandments.

The Gemara Answers:
מהו דתימא הואיל ואית בה מלכות שמים קמ"ל:
One might have thought that since
the Shema
contains a reference to the Kingdom of Heaven
it should be read by women;
therefore
the Mishna has to
inform us
they are exempt.

ומן התפלין:
And from Tefillin.

The Gemara Asks:
פשיטא
This too is obvious,
as Tefillin are positive time - bound commandments.

The Gemara Answers:
מהו דתימא הואיל ואתקש למזוזה קמ"ל:
One might have thought that since there is a Hekesh between Tefillin and Mezuzah,
just as women are obligated to have a Mezuzah they should be obligated to wear Tefillin.
Therefore
the Mishna
informs us
they are exempt.

וחייבין בתפלה:
But they are obligated to Pray.

The Gemara Asks:
דרחמי נינהו
It's obvious that women have to pray! Prayer isn't a time bound commandment
as it's a request for mercy
(and one can pray at any time.)

The Gemara Answers:
מהו דתימא הואיל וכתיב בה ערב ובקר וצהרים כמצות עשה שהזמן גרמא דמי קמ"ל:
But one might have thought that since
the verse says
"Evening and morning and at noonday",
prayer is considered
like a positive time - bound commandments
(and women should be exempt.
Therefore,
the Mishna
informs us
that they are obligated.

ובמזוזה:
And Mezuzah.

The Gemara Asks:
פשיטא
It's obvious
that women are obligated in a Mezuzah.

The Gemara Answers:
מהו דתימא הואיל ואתקש לתלמוד תורה קמשמע לן:
One might have said that since there is a Hekesh
between the Mezuzah
and Torah study,
being exempt from Torah study they are likewise exempt from having to put a Mezuzah.
Therefore
The Mishna
informs us
that women are obligated to fix the Mezuzah.

ובברכת המזון:
And Grace after meals.

The Gemara Asks:
פשיטא
This too is obvious -
Grace after meals isn't time bound.

The Gemara Answers:
מהו דתימא הואיל וכתיב בתת ה' לכם בערב בשר לאכל ולחם בבקר לשבע כמצות עשה שהזמן גרמא דמי קמ"ל:
One might have thought that since
the verse says
"When Hashem shall give you in the evening flesh to eat and in the morning bread to satiation,"
eating, as well as saying Grace after meals is considered
as a positive time bound commandment
(and women are exempt).
Therefore it informs us
that they are obligated.

 
 
 
אמר רב אדא בר אהבה נשים חייבות בקדוש היום דבר תורה
Rav Adda bar Ahavah said that women are biblically obligated to recite Kiddush on Shabbos.

The Gemara Asks:
אמאי מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא הוא וכל מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא נשים פטורות
But why, since
Kiddush
is a positive time - bound commandment, women should be exempt.

The Gemara attempts an answer:
אמר אביי מדרבנן
Abaye answered:
The obligation for women to say Kiddush on Shabbos
is Rabbinical.

The Gemara rejects this answer for two reasons:
א"ל רבא והא דבר תורה קאמר
1.
Rava responded: But
Rav Adda
said that
Kiddush is a
"ordinance of the Torah"!

ועוד כל מצות עשה נחייבינהו מדרבנן
2. What is unique about Kiddush? Why aren't
women Rabbinically obligated in all other positive
time - bound?

The Gemara says another answer:
אלא אמר רבא אמר קרא זכור ושמור כל שישנו בשמירה ישנו בזכירה והני נשי הואיל ואיתנהו בשמירה איתנהו בזכירה
Rather, Rava said that
women have to say Kiddush because
the Scriptures say, "Remember the Shabbos day to keep it holy" and "Guard the Shabbos to keep it holy".
The Gemara derives that
everyone who has to "guard"
(keep the negative commandments of Shabbos, like women)
must likewise "remember", and since women must "observe," so must they "remember."

 
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
א"ל רבינא לרבא נשים בברכת המזון דאורייתא או דרבנן
Ravina asked Rava: Are women obligated in Grace after meals Biblically or Rabbinically?

למאי נפקא מינה לאפוקי רבים ידי חובתן
What difference does it make? The difference is whether they have the power of exempting others.

אי אמרת (בשלמא) דאורייתא אתי דאורייתא ומפיק דאורייתא (אלא אי) אמרת דרבנן הוי שאינו מחוייב בדבר וכל שאינו מחוייב בדבר אינו מוציא את הרבים ידי חובתן
If they are Biblically obligated
they can fulfill a man's obligation in reciting the Shema
as one who is obligated by the Torah
to keep the observance
can exempt one
whose observance is likewise commanded
by the Torah. But if they are only Rabbinically obligated, then since one who is not obligated
to keep commandments
cannot exempt others
from that commandment, women would not be able to fulfill a man's obligation in saying Grace after meals.

מאי
So what is the Halacha?

The Gemara attempts to answer:
ת"ש באמת אמרו בן מברך לאביו ועבד מברך לרבו ואשה מברכת לבעלה
The Sages said:
It has indeed been stated: A son
who is a minor
may say Grace for his father, a slave for his master, and a woman for her husband.

אבל אמרו חכמים תבא מארה לאדם שאשתו ובניו מברכין לו
But the Sages declare: May a curse fall on the man
who is so ignorant that he requires that
his wife or his son says Grace
for him.

אי אמרת בשלמא דאורייתא אתי דאורייתא ומפיק דאורייתא אלא אי אמרת דרבנן אתי דרבנן ומפיק דאורייתא
This teaching only makes sense
if
a woman's obligation to say grace
is biblical; then since she is obligated by the Torah
to say Grace, she can
exempt one
whose observance is likewise
Biblical. But if
the obligation to say grace is only
Rabbinic, then can one who is obligated
to say grace
only Rabbinically exempt one
who is
Biblically obligated.

The Gemara rejects this answer:
ולטעמיך קטן בר חיובא הוא
But is a minor obligated
to say Grace?

 
But the Braisa taught that a child can say grace for his father.
 
 
אלא הכי במאי עסקינן כגון שאכל שיעורא דרבנן דאתי דרבנן ומפיק דרבנן:
Rather,
this Braisa talks about a case where the male
has eaten
less than the minimum amount Biblically required to say grace, but more than the
minimum quantity ordained by the Rabbis, so
his wife or child, who is
obligated by the Sages
to say Grace
can exempt him
(whose observance is likewise commanded
by the Rabbis
).

 
 
 
דרש רב עוירא זמנין אמר לה משמיה דר' אמי וזמנין אמר לה משמיה דר' אסי
Rav Avira expounded (sometimes he said it in the name of Rabbi Ami and sometimes in the name of Rabbi Assi):

אמרו מלאכי השרת לפני הקב"ה
The ministering angels said before Hashem:

רבש"ע כתוב בתורתך אשר לא ישא פנים ולא יקח שחד
"Master of the universe! It is written of You in Your Torah, 'Who does not favorite and does not takes bribes',

והלא אתה נושא פנים לישראל דכתיב ישא ה' פניו אליך
But do you not favor the Jews,
as the verse says
'May Hashem lift up His countenance upon you'"?

אמר להם
He replied to them,

וכי לא אשא פנים לישראל שכתבתי להם בתורה אכלת ושבעת וברכת את ה' אלהיך והם מדקדקים
על
עצמם עד כזית ועד כביצה:
"And should I not favor the Jews, as I wrote in the Torah, 'And you shall eat and be satisfied and bless Hashem
so the Torah requires one to bless only after being full,
but they are strict with themselves
and bless
even with a quantity of food equal in size to an olive or an egg?"

 
 
 

Mishna
בעל קרי מהרהר בלבו ואינו מברך לא לפניה ולא לאחריה
A Ba'al Keri may meditate upon
the words of the Shema
in his heart and does not say the blessings before or after it.

ועל המזון מברך לאחריו ואינו מברך לפניו
He
also
says the Birkas Hamazon , but not the blessing after.

רבי יהודה אומר מברך לפניהם ולאחריהם:
Rabbi Yehuda says: He blesses both before and after
eating.

Gemara
אמר רבינא זאת אומרת הרהור כדבור דמי
Ravina said that
the Mishna
implies that meditation is the equivalent of speech,

דאי סלקא דעתך לאו כדבור דמי למה מהרהר
For if not, why should he meditate at all!

The Gemara Asks:
אלא מאי הרהור כדבור דמי יוציא בשפתיו
But if meditation is the equivalent of speech, Let him then say the words with his lips!

The Gemara Answers:
כדאשכחן בסיני
No, just as by Mount Sinai
the Jews were considered "talking" when receiving the Torah, so too only saying words of Torah as a Ba'al Keri is forbidden.

ורב חסדא אמר הרהור לאו כדבור דמי
But Rav Chisda said: Meditation is not the equivalent of speech;

דאי סלקא דעתך הרהור כדבור דמי יוציא בשפתיו
For if it was, let him say the words with his lips!

The Gemara Asks:
אלא מאי הרהור לאו כדבור דמי למה מהרהר
But if meditation is not the equivalent of speech. Why, then, should he meditate?

The Gemara Answers:
אמר רבי אלעזר כדי שלא יהו כל העולם עוסקין בו והוא יושב ובטל
Rabbi Elazar said:
While meditation doesn't do anything, he has to do something
so that the whole world should not be engaged upon the reading of the Shema, and he does nothing.

The Gemara Asks:
ונגרוס בפרקא אחרינא
Then let him read some other chapter?
Why meditate on the Shema?

The Gemara Answers:
אמר רב אדא בר אהבה בדבר שהצבור עוסקין בו
Rav Adda Bar Ahavah replied
that one should say the prayers which
the community is engaged.






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Dedicated in loving memory of Leah Rivka Bas Reb Dovid HaKohen A"H.
Last build: 2019-01-31T02:13:59Z