Dedicate Daf 21b to:



או צבור וצבור אבל יחיד לגבי צבור כמאן דלא צלי דמי קמ"ל
Or to a person who prayed with the Congregation and is repeating it with the Congregation; but one who prayed alone is like one who has not prayed relative to praying with a congregation! Therefore he informs us
that having even if one prayed in private, one doesn't say it a second time with a Congregation,

ואי אשמעינן הכא משום דלא אתחיל בה אבל התם דאתחיל בה אימא לא צריכא
And if he had only given us the latter teaching,
we might have thought that he does not pray a second time with the Congregation
because he has not actually started; but if he did, he should not
interrupt it on discovering his error!
Consequently it was necessary
to have the first teaching of Rav Yehuda.

 
 
 
אמר רב הונא הנכנס לבית הכנסת ומצא צבור שמתפללין אם יכול להתחיל ולגמור עד שלא יגיע ש"ץ למודים יתפלל ואם לאו אל יתפלל
Rav Huna said: If one entered a Synagogue and the Congregation was praying, he can begin praying only if he is able to finish before the Chazzan reaches the words "We give thanks unto You."

 
Since he has to respond with the congregation.
 
 
ריב"ל אמר אם יכול להתחיל ולגמור עד שלא יגיע ש"צ לקדושה יתפלל ואם לאו אל יתפלל
Rabbi Yehoshua Ben Levi said: He can begin praying only if he is able to finish
his prayer
before the Chazzan reaches the Kedushah.

The Gemara Asks:
במאי קא מפלגי
Over what do they argue?

The Gemara Answers:
מר סבר יחיד אומר קדושה
Rav Huna
holds that an individual says the Kedushah.

ומר סבר אין יחיד אומר קדושה
While Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi
holds that an individual does not say it.

וכן אמר רב אדא בר אהבה מנין שאין היחיד אומר קדושה
And similarly Rav Adda Bar Ahavah said: What is the source that an individual does not say the Kedusha?

שנאמר ונקדשתי בתוך בני ישראל כל דבר שבקדושה לא יהא פחות מעשרה
The
verse says
"I will be hallowed among the children of Israel" - i.e. any "Sanctification" must be performed with a quorum of ten.

The Gemara Asks:
מאי משמע
How is this implied?

The Gemara Answers:
דתני רבנאי אחוה דרבי חייא בר אבא אתיא תוך תוך
As Ravnai, the brother of Rabbi Chiya bar Abba, taught:
There's a Gezeira Shava connecting the words
"among."

כתיב הכא ונקדשתי בתוך בני ישראל וכתיב התם הבדלו מתוך העדה הזאת
One verse writes
"I will be sanctified among the children of Israel" and
another verse writes
"Separate yourselves from among this congregation".

מה להלן עשרה אף כאן עשרה
Just as
the second verse refers to a congregation of
close
This verse refers to the ten evil spies (there were twelve spies, ten were evil and two (Yehoshua and Kalev) were good).
ten ,
the first verse (dealing with "Sanctification") also refers to a congregation of
ten.

ודכולי עלמא מיהת מפסק לא פסיק
But everybody agrees that a man must not interrupt
his prayer to respond to the Kedushah or "We give thanks" prayers.

The Gemara Asks:
איבעיא להו מהו להפסיק ליהא שמו הגדול מבורך
The question was raised: May one interrupt
his prayer (specifically, the Shemoneh Esrei )
to respond "Let His great name be blessed"?

The Gemara Asks:
כי אתא רב דימי אמר ר' יהודה ור"ש תלמידי דרבי יוחנן אמרי
When Rav Dimi came
from Israel
he reported that Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Shimon, disciples of Rabbi Yochanan, said:

לכל אין מפסיקין חוץ מן יהא שמו הגדול מבורך שאפילו עוסק במעשה מרכבה פוסק
We may not interrupt
the prayer
for anything except for "Let His great name be blessed"; for even one engaged with the study of the the Supernal Chariot must interrupt
to say "Let His great name be blessed".

ולית הלכתא כותיה:
But the Halacha does not follow their view.

 
 
 
ר' יהודה אומר מברך לפניהם ולאחריהם:
Rabbi Yehuda says: He blesses before and after.

 
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
למימרא דקסבר רבי יהודה בעל קרי מותר בדברי תורה
But does Rabbi Yehuda hold that a Ba'al Keri is permitted to study Torah?

והאמר ריב"ל מנין לבעל קרי שאסור בדברי תורה
But Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: What is the source that a Ba'al Keri is forbidden to study Torah?

שנאמר והודעתם לבניך ולבני בניך
One verse says
"You shall teach your children and your children's children"

וסמיך ליה יום אשר עמדת וגו'
And the verse continues
"The day that you stood before Hashem your G - d in Chorev
Mt. Sinai"
.

מה להלן בעלי קריין אסורין אף כאן בעלי קריין אסורין
And the juxtaposition of the two concepts teach that
just as a Ba'al Keri was close
As the verse says that they had to separate from their wives for three days.
forbidden
to be present when the Torah was given,
so are they forbidden
to study Torah nowadays.

The Gemara attempts to answer:
וכי תימא רבי יהודה לא דריש סמוכים
And if you'll answer that Rabbi Yehuda does not expound juxtapositions,

The Gemara rejects this answer:
והאמר רב יוסף אפילו מאן דלא דריש סמוכים בכל התורה במשנה תורה דריש
But Rav Yosef said that even one who does not expound juxtapositions in any other part of the Torah does so in the Book of Devarim -

דהא רבי יהודה לא דריש סמוכין בכל התורה כולה ובמשנה תורה דריש
As Rabbi Yehuda, who does not expound juxtaposition in any other part of the Torah, does so in the Book of Devarim.

The Gemara will now show how Rabbi Yehuda doesn't expound juxtapositions anywhere except for the book of Devarim:
The Gemara Asks:
ובכל התורה כולה מנא לן דלא דריש
What is the source that he does not use this method in any other part of the Torah?

The Gemara Answers:
דתניא בן עזאי אומר נאמר מכשפה לא תחיה ונאמר כל שוכב עם בהמה מות יומת סמכו ענין לו לומר
For
a Braisa taught:
Ben Azzai said: One verse says "You shall not allow a sorceress to live" and it continues, "Whoever
is intimate
with an animal shall surely be put to death".

מה שוכב עם בהמה בסקילה אף מכשפה נמי בסקילה
The Sages
connect the two laws to infer that just as one who
is intimate
with an animal is put to death by stoning, so too is a sorceress put to death by stoning.

אמר ליה ר' יהודה וכי מפני שסמכו ענין לו נוציא לזה לסקילה
Rabbi Yehuda responded to him: Just because the two topics are juxtaposed we'll stone the person
condemned for sorcery?

אלא אוב וידעוני בכלל כל המכשפים היו
No. Rather the source that a sorcerer is executed by stoning is
that Ov and Yidoni sorcery is
just another type of
of sorcery.

ולמה יצאו להקיש להן ולומר לך מה אוב וידעוני בסקילה אף מכשפה בסקילה
So why did the verse explicitly
say that an Ov or a Yidoni is executed by stoning? Must be to teach that
just as they are punished by stoning, so also is the sorceress.

The Gemara Asks:
ובמשנה תורה מנא לן דדריש
And how do we know that Rabbi Yehuda does expound juxtaposition in the Book of Devarim?

The Gemara Answers:
דתניא רבי אליעזר אומר נושא אדם אנוסת אביו ומפותת אביו אנוסת בנו ומפותת בנו ר' יהודה אוסר באנוסת אביו ובמפותת אביו
For
a Braisa taught:
Rabbi Eliezer says that one may marry a woman who
was lived with by his father, as long as they never married. So too, he holds that one may marry a woman who was lived with by
his son
as long as they were not married. However,
Rabbi Yehuda prohibits one to marry
a woman who was lived with by either his father or his son.

The Gemara Asks:
ואמר רב גידל אמר רב מאי טעמא דר' יהודה
Rav Gidel
asked
in the name of Rav: What is Rabbi Yehuda's reason?

 
The simple reading of the verse only says that one may not marry his father's
wife
.
 
 
The Gemara Answers:
דכתיב לא יקח איש את אשת אביו ולא יגלה (את) כנף אביו כנף שראה אביו לא יגלה
Because
the verse says
"One shall not take his father's wife and shall not uncover his father's skirt" - i.e. the skirt which his father had seen shall he not uncover.

The Gemara Asks:
וממאי דבאנוסת אביו כתיב
But
what is the source that
this refers to one
who his father lived with out of wedlock?

The Gemara Answers:
דסמיך ליה ונתן האיש השוכב עמה וגו'
Because a preceding verse
writes
"The man that lies with her shall give to the girl's father fifty shekels of silver".

 
So from the past two laws we see that Rabbi Yehuda does expound juxtapositions in the book of Devarim. So why does Rabbi Yehuda ignore the above exposition of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi?
 
 
The Gemara Answers:
אמרי אין במשנה תורה דריש
They
answered:
Yes,
Rabbi Yehuda does expound juxtapositions
in the Book of Devarim.

והני סמוכין מבעי ליה לאידך דריב"ל
But the above juxtapositions are
required for the other teaching of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, who says:

דאמר ריב"ל כל המלמד לבנו תורה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאלו קבלה מהר חורב
Whoever teaches his son Torah is considered as though he had received it from Mount Chorev ;

שנאמר והודעתם לבניך ולבני בניך וכתיב בתריה יום אשר עמדת לפני ה' אלהיך בחורב
As
the verse says
"You shall teach your children and your children's children," and the next verse says "The day that you stood before Hashem your G - d in Chorev ".

 
 
 
The Gemara continues to ask if Rabbi Yehuda really holds that a Ba'al Keri is forbidden to study Torah:
תנן זב שראה קרי ונדה שפלטה שכבת זרע המשמשת וראתה דם צריכין טבילה ורבי יהודה פוטר
The Mishna says:
A Zav or a Niddah who became a Ba'al Keri , or a woman who during intercourse became a Niddah require immersion; But Rabbi Yehuda exempts them.

עד כאן לא פטר רבי יהודה אלא בזב שראה קרי דמעיקרא לאו בר טבילה הוא אבל בעל קרי גרידא מחייב
But Rabbi Yehuda only exempts a Zav who became a Ba'al Keri , because (as a Zav) he was permitted
to study Torah, which implies that a regular
Ba'al Keri is required
to immerse.

The Gemara attempts to answer:
וכי תימא ה"ה דאפילו בעל קרי גרידא נמי פטר רבי יהודה
And if you'll answer that Rabbi Yehuda also exempts a Ba'al Keri ,

והאי דקא מפלגי בזב שראה קרי להודיעך כחן דרבנן
And they argue over
the case of a Zav who became a Ba'al Keri
to show the extreme view taken by the Sages,

 
That even though he was already a Zav, he is still forbidden to study Torah until he immerses.
 
 
The Gemara rejects this answer:
אימא סיפא המשמשת וראתה דם צריכה טבילה למאן קתני לה
The latter part of the Mishna
rejects this answer, as it says
"A woman who during intercourse became a Niddah requires immersion."

אילימא לרבנן פשיטא
Why does the Mishna teach this?
What novel point is there?

השתא ומה זב שראה קרי דמעיקרא לאו בר טבילה הוא מחייבי רבנן המשמשת וראתה דם דמעיקרא בת טבילה היא לא כל שכן
It cannot be teaching a novel point in the Sages' opinion, as
if a Zav who became a Ba'al Keri (who,
despite being impure) is
obligated to immerse
before Torah study,
how much more so should a woman who became a Niddah during intercourse
(who was originally obligated to immerse) be obligated to immerse.

אלא לאו ר' יהודה היא ודוקא קתני לה
Must it not be
a novel point only
for Rabbi Yehuda, and the teachings are meant to be precise.






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Dedicated in loving memory of Leah Rivka Bas Reb Dovid HaKohen A"H.
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