Dedicate Daf 22b to:



בקילעא דרב אושעיא אתו ושאלו לרב אסי אמר להו
In the ante - room of Rabbi Oshaya, and they came and consulted Rav Assi. He said to them:

לא שנו אלא לחולה המרגיל אבל לחולה לאונסו פטור מכלום
The teaching
about the nine Kav
applies only to a delicate person who caused it to happen on purpose; but a delicate person who
became a Baal Keri against his will
is exempt completely.

א"ר יוסף אצטמיד חצביה דרב נחמן
Rav Yosef said that Rav Nachman's pitcher was repaired.

 
Since the students of Rav Nachman were presumably becoming Baal Keri s on purpose (for the purpose of intimacy) and not against their will, they can pour nine Kav on themselves to make themselves Tahor.
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
מכדי כולהו אמוראי ותנאי בדעזרא קמיפלגי ונחזי עזרא היכי תקן
Since all these Amoraim and Tannaim are arguing over Ezra's decree, why not just see how Ezra ordained it.

The Gemara Answers:
אמר אביי עזרא תקן לבריא המרגיל מ' סאה ובריא לאונסו ט' קבין
Abaye said: Ezra ordained
that a
healthy person who became
Ba'al Keri
on purpose has to
immerse in a Mikvah, and
a healthy person who became
a Ba'al Keri
by accident needs nine Kav.

ואתו אמוראי ופליגי בחולה
Then came the Amoraim and argued over one who was unhealthy:

מר סבר חולה המרגיל כבריא המרגיל וחולה לאונסו כבריא לאונסו
Some held that one who
becomes a Ba'al Keri
on purpose
is always required to immerse in a Mikvah, whether
he was healthy or not, and
one who became a Ba'al Keri
by accident is only required to
pour nine Kav on himself, whether
he was healthy or not.

 
So despite Torah scholars not being physically fit, since they become Ba'al Keri on purpose (to have children), they have to immerse in a Mikvah and pouring nine Kav is not sufficient.
 
 
ומר סבר חולה המרגיל כבריא לאונסו וחולה לאונסו פטור מכלום
Others, however, hold that an ill person
who became a Ba'al Keri
on purpose has the same Halacha as a healthy person
who became a Ba'al Keri
by accident
(one only needs to have nine Kav poured on him),
and an ill person
who became a Ba'al Keri
by accident doesn't require anything.

 
So Torah scholars, who are Ba'al Keri on purpose but are ill only needs nine Kav.
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
אמר רבא נהי דתקן עזרא טבילה נתינה מי תקן
Rava said:
But
Ezra instituted immersion
in a Mikvah and not
pouring
nine Kav!

והאמר מר עזרא תקן טבילה לבעלי קריין
As
the Sages said:
"Ezra instituted immersion for those who are a Ba'al Keri ."

The Gemara Answers:
אלא אמר רבא עזרא תקן טבילה לבריא המרגיל מ' סאה
Rather, Rava said that Ezra instituted
that a
healthy
Ba'al Keri , who became a Ba'al Keri on purpose,
must immerse
in a Mikvah.

ואתו רבנן והתקינו לבריא לאונסו ט' קבין
And then the Sages instituted that if a healthy man
became a Ba'al Keri
by accident,
it's sufficient to pour
nine Kav.

ואתו אמוראי וקא מיפלגי בחולה
After that the Amoraim came and differed as to what was to be done to a person in delicate health.

מר סבר חולה המרגיל כבריא המרגיל וחולה לאונסו כבריא לאונסו
Some held that one who
becomes a Ba'al Keri
on purpose
is always required to immerse in a Mikvah, whether
he was healthy or not, and
one who became a Ba'al Keri
by accident is only required to
pour nine Kav on himself, whether
he was healthy or not..

ומר סבר לבריא המרגיל מ' סאה וחולה המרגיל כבריא לאונסו ט' קבין אבל לחולה לאונסו פטור מכלום
Others, however, held that a healthy person
who became a Ba'al Keri
on purpose needs
to immerse in a Mikvah,
and a ill person
who became a Ba'al Keri
on purpose
has the same Halacha
as a healthy person
who became a Ba'al Keri
by accident -
in that they need
nine Kav
of water poured on them.
But an ill person
who became a Ba'al Keri
against his will isn't obligated in anything.

The Gemara concludes:
אמר רבא הלכתא בריא המרגיל וחולה המרגיל ארבעים סאה ובריא לאונסו תשעה קבין אבל לחולה לאונסו פטור מכלום:
Rava said: The Halacha is - Both a healthy man and ill person
are required to immerse in a Mikvah if they became a Ba'al Keri
on purpose, and a healthy person
is obligated to have
nine Kav
poured on him if he became a Ba'al Keri
accidentally. But an ill person
who became a Ba'al Keri
against his will isn't obligated in anything.

 
 
 
ת"ר בעל קרי שנתנו עליו ט' קבין מים טהור
The Sages taught: A Ba'al Keri upon whom nine Kav of water have been poured becomes Tahor.

בד"א לעצמו אבל לאחרים ארבעים סאה
When is this true?
If he wishes to study Torah
for himself; but
if he wishes to teach it
to others,
he must immerse in a proper Mikvah.

ר' יהודה אומר מ' סאה מכל מקום
Rabbi Yehuda says that
one must always immerse in a proper Mikvah.

The Gemara records two arguments:
ר' יוחנן וריב"ל ור"א ור' יוסי בר' חנינא
Rabbi Yochanan and Rabbi Yehoshua Ben Levi, and Rabbi Elazar and Rabbi Yossi Ben Rabbi Chanina -

חד מהאי זוגא וחד מהאי זוגא ארישא
One of the first pair argues with one of the second pair on the interpretation of the first part of this teaching.

חד אמר הא דאמרת במה דברים אמורים לעצמו אבל לאחרים מ' סאה לא שנו אלא לחולה המרגיל אבל לחולה לאונסו ט' קבין
One says: The statement, "When is this true?
If he wishes to study Torah
for himself; but
if he wishes to teach it
to others,
he must immerse in a proper Mikvah."
only applies to to an ill person who became
a Ba'al Keri
on purpose,
but if he became a Ba'al Keri
against his will, he needs to have nine Kav poured on him.

וחד אמר כל לאחרים אפילו חולה לאונסו עד דאיכא מ' סאה
The other says: If
wishes to teach Torah
to others, even if he is an ill person
who became Ba'al Keri against his will, cannot be regarded as Tahor
until they
immerse in a proper Mikvah.

וחד מהאי זוגא וחד מהאי זוגא אסיפא
One of the first pair argues with one of the second pair on the interpretation of the second part of this teaching.

חד אמר הא דאמר רבי יהודה מ' סאה מכל מקום לא שנו אלא בקרקע אבל בכלים לא
One says: The statement, "Rabbi Yehuda says
one must always immerse in a proper Mikvah."
teaches that this
Mikvah must be found
in the ground, but
one may not immerse
in vessels.

וחד אמר אפי' בכלים נמי
The other says:
One may also immerse even
in vessels.

The Gemara Asks:
בשלמא למ"ד אפי' בכלים היינו דקתני ר' יהודה אומר מ' סאה מכל מקום
The phrase
"Rabbi Yehuda says that one must always immerse
in a proper Mikvah"
make sense for those who say one may immerse in vessels,

אלא למ"ד בקרקע אין בכלים לא מכל מקום לאתויי מאי
But
how does the other opinion explain the
phrase "one must
always
immerse in a Mikvah"?

The Gemara Answers:
לאתויי מים שאובין1
It teaches
that a Ba'al Keri may immerse in
drawn water.

 
 
 
The Gemara will now cite a story as a final conclusion:
רב פפא ורב הונא בריה דרב יהושע ורבא בר שמואל כריכו ריפתא בהדי הדדי
Rav Papa and Rav Huna bar Rav Yehoshua and Rava bar Shmuel dined together.

א"ל רב פפא הבו לי לדידי לברוך דנפול עילואי ט' קבין
Rav Papa said to them: "Permit me to
lead
Birkas Hamazon , because nine Kav
of water
were poured over me."

אמר להו רבא בר שמואל תנינא במה דברים אמורים לעצמו אבל לאחרים מ' סאה
Rava bar Rav Shmuel said to them: "But we learned: When
are nine Kav sufficient? If he wishes to study Torah
for himself, but
if he wishes to teach it
to others,
he must immerse in
forty Se'ah.'"

אלא הבו לי לדידי לברוך דנפול עילואי ארבעים סאה
So permit me to lead Birkas Hamazon because
I immersed in a proper Mikvah.

אמר להו רב הונא הבו לי לדידי לברוך דליכא עילואי לא האי ולא האי
Rav Huna said to them: "Permit me to lead Birkas Hamazon , since I have had need neither of the one nor the other."

 
As he followed Rabbi Yehuda Ben Beseira's opinion that one doesn't have to immerse in a Mikvah before Torah study or prayer.
 
 
רב חמא טביל במעלי יומא דפסחא להוציא רבים ידי חובתן
Rav Chama
would immerse
on the day before Pesach in order to exempt others from their obligation,

ולית הלכתא כוותיה:
But the Halacha does not follow him.

 
 
 

Mishna
היה עומד בתפלה ונזכר שהוא בעל קרי לא יפסיק אלא יקצר
If he was praying the Shemoneh Esrei and remembered that he is a Ba'al Keri , he should not interrupt
his prayer
but shorten it.

ירד לטבול אם יכול לעלות ולהתכסות ולקרות עד שלא תהא הנץ החמה יעלה ויתכסה ויקרא ואם לאו יתכסה במים ויקרא
If he had gone down to immerse and has time to ascend, clothe himself and read
the Shema
before sunrise, he must ascend, clothe himself and read; but if not, he should immerse his body in the water and read.

ולא יתכסה לא במים הרעים ולא במי המשרה עד שיטיל לתוכן מים
He may not immerse himself in foul - smelling water nor water of soaking, until he has poured into it
fresh
water.

וכמה ירחיק מהן ומן הצואה ד' אמות:
To what distance must he remove himself from it and excrement
if he wishes to read the Shema?
Four cubits.

Gemara
היה עומד בתפלה ונזכר שהוא בעל קרי לא יפסיק אלא יקצר
If he was praying the Shemoneh Esrei and remembered that he is a Ba'al Keri , he should not interrupt
his prayer
but shorten it.

היה קורא בתורה ונזכר שהוא בעל קרי אינו מפסיק ועולה אלא מגמגם וקורא
If he was reading the Torah and remembered that he is a Ba'al Keri , he should not stop
reading,
but should reading quickly.

ר"מ אומר אין בעל קרי רשאי לקרות בתורה יותר מג' פסוקים
Rabbi Meir says: A Ba'al Keri is not permitted to read more than three verses in the Torah.

 
 
 
The Gemara cites a contradiction between two Braisas:
תניא אידך היה עומד בתפלה וראה צואה כנגדו מהלך לפניו עד שיזרקנה לאחוריו ד' אמות
There is another teaching: If a man was praying the Shemoneh Esrei and saw some excrement opposite him, he should step forward until he has left it behind him a distance of four cubits.

והתניא לצדדין
But another Braisa says: He should step
sideways!

The Gemara Answers:
ל"ק הא דאפשר הא דלא אפשר
There is no contradiction: If he can,
he should step forward
, if he cannot,
he should step sideways.

 
 
 
היה מתפלל ומצא צואה במקומו אמר רבה אע"פ שחטא תפלתו תפלה
If a man was reciting the Shemoneh Esrei and found excrement where he was standing, Rabbah said: Even if he himself was responsible for it, his prayer is valid.

מתקיף ליה רבא והא זבח רשעים תועבה
Rava retorted: But
the verse says
"The sacrifice of the wicked is an abomination!"

אלא אמר רבא הואיל וחטא אע"פ שהתפלל תפלתו תועבה:
Therefore, Rava said that since he sinned
by not checking his surroundings for excrement,
his prayer is an abomination.

 
 
 
ת"ר היה עומד בתפלה ומים שותתין על ברכיו
Our Sages have taught: If he was standing in the Shemoneh Esrei and urine began to drip upon his knees,

פוסק עד שיכלו המים וחוזר ומתפלל
He should interrupt
his prayer
until it stops and then repeat the prayer

The Gemara Asks:
להיכן חוזר
To what point does he return?

The Gemara cites two answers:
רב חסדא ורב המנונא
Rav Chisda and Rav Hamnuna
argue.

חד אמר חוזר לראש
One says that he recommences from the beginning;

וחד אמר למקום שפסק
The other says that he goes back to the place where
he was praying when he started urinating.

The Gemara Asks:
לימא בהא קמיפלגי
Are they arguing over the following:






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Dedicated in loving memory of Leah Rivka Bas Reb Dovid HaKohen A"H.
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