Dedicate Daf 25a to:



אבל לתפלה עד שיכסה את לבו
But one may not pray
the Shemoneh Esrei
without covering his heart.

וא"ר הונא
Rav Huna also said:

שכח ונכנס בתפילין לבית הכסא מניח ידו עליהן עד שיגמור
If one forgot and entered a restroom wearing his Tefillin, he should place his hand over them until he finishes.

The Gemara Asks:
עד שיגמור ס"ד
Does he really mean that
one may keep his Tefillin on
until he finishes?

The Gemara Answers:
אלא כדאמר ר"נ בר יצחק עד שיגמור עמוד ראשון
Rather, as Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak said:
He may keep them on
until he finishes the first discharge.

The Gemara Asks:
ולפסוק לאלתר וליקום
Why don't we require him to
stop at once and stand up
to remove his Tefillin?

The Gemara Answers:
משום דרשב"ג
One shouldn't stop his bathroom needs midway
because of
the saying of
Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel.

דתניא רשב"ג אומר עמוד החוזר מביא את האדם לידי הדרוקן סילון החוזר מביא את האדם לידי ירקון:
For Rabban Shimon Ben Gamliel says: If fecal discharge is kept back it causes dropsy, and if urine is kept back it causes jaundice.

 
 
 
The Gemara cites a dispute:
אתמר צואה על בשרו או ידו מונחת בבית הכסא
What is the Halacha
If one has excrement on his body, or his hand is placed within a restroom?

רב הונא אמר מותר לקרות ק"ש
Rav Huna said: One may read the Shema.

רב חסדא אמר אסור לקרות ק"ש
Rav Chisda said: One may not read the Shema.

The Gemara Asks:
אמר רבא מ"ט דרב הונא
Rava asked: What is Rav Huna's reason
(permitting reading the Shema)?

Rava answers:
דכתיב כל הנשמה תהלל יה
Because the verse says "Let everything that has breath praise Hashem".

 
Implying that it's the nose and the mouth which praises Hashem (and must be in a clean place), and not one's flesh.
 
 
ורב חסדא אמר אסור לקרות ק"ש
Rav Chisda said: One may not read the Shema.

The Gemara Asks:
מ"ט דרב חסדא
Why?

דכתיב כל עצמותי תאמרנה ה' מי כמוך:
Because the verse says "All my bones shall say, Hashem who is like You".

 
Implying that one's whole body praises Hashem, and has to be kept clean while praying or saying the Shema.
 
 
The Gemara will now cite another argument between Rav Huna and Rav Chisda:
אתמר
It has been said:

ריח רע שיש לו עיקר
What is the Halacha
if there is a foul odor for which there is a
physical
cause
present?

 
Such as if there is excrement lying there.
 
 
רב הונא אמר מרחיק ד' אמות וקורא ק"ש
Rav Huna said that one should move himself four cubits
(from the excrement)
and read the Shema.

 
Even if the smell reaches him, as long as it's not in front of him.
 
 
ורב חסדא אמר מרחיק ד' אמות ממקום שפסק הריח וקורא ק"ש
Rav Chisda said that one should move four cubits from the place where the odor ceases and then read the Shema.

תניא כותיה דרב חסדא
There is a teaching in agreement with Rav Chisda:

לא יקרא אדם ק"ש לא כנגד צואת אדם ולא כנגד צואת כלבים ולא כנגד צואת חזירים ולא כנגד צואת תרנגולים
One may not read the Shema standing in front of human, dogs, pig, or poultry excrement;

ולא כנגד צואת אשפה שריחה רע
Nor in front of excrement in a garbage pile which gives forth a bad odor.

ואם היה מקום גבוה עשרה טפחים או נמוך עשרה טפחים יושב בצדו וקורא ק"ש ואם לאו מרחיק מלא עיניו
If
the excrement is
ten cubits higher or lower
than him,
he
may
sit at the side and reads the Shema; but if not, he must move as far as he can see it.

וכן לתפלה
And the same rule applies to the Shemoneh Esrei .

ריח רע שיש לו עיקר מרחיק ד' אמות ממקום הריח וקורא ק"ש
If there is a foul odor for which there is a
physical
cause
present (i.e. excrement),
he must move four cubits from the place of the odor and reads the Shema.

 
Rav Chisda follows this Braisa - that one doesn't read the Shema even if there's only an odor coming from excrement there.
 
 
אמר רבא לית הלכתא כי הא מתניתא (בכל הני שמעתתא) אלא כי הא דתניא
Rava said: The Halacha doesn't follow this teaching, but according to the following teaching:

לא יקרא אדם ק"ש לא כנגד צואת אדם ולא כנגד צואת חזירים ולא כנגד צואת כלבים בזמן שנתן עורות לתוכן
A man should not read the Shema opposite human, pig or dog excrement only when there are skins placed therein.

The Gemara Asks:
בעו מיניה מרב ששת
Rav Sheshes was asked:

ריח רע שאין לו עיקר מהו
How is it with a foul odor which has no
material (i.e. excrement)
cause?

 
The smell comes from passing gas.
 
 
The Gemara Answers:
אמר להו אתו חזו הני ציפי דבי רב דהני גנו והני גרסי
He replied: The mats in the Beis Medrash of Rav, on which some are sleeping while others are studying.

 
And there's an assumption that one passes gas when one sleeps. So if one is permitted to learn next to someone sleeping, he's allowed to learn next to someone passing gas.
 
 
וה"מ בדברי תורה אבל בק"ש לא
But this refers only to
learning
Torah, not to reciting the Shema.

ודברי תורה נמי לא אמרן אלא דחבריה אבל דידיה לא:
And
one may study Torah around one who passed gas only if the bad odor was caused
by someone else; but if he himself is the cause, he must not
even study until the odor has passed off.

 
 
 
The Gemara cites an argument:
אתמר צואה עוברת
It has been reported: If excrement is being carried past a person:

אביי אמר מותר לקרות ק"ש
Abaye said that one is permitted to recite the Shema.

רבא אמר אסור לקרות ק"ש
Rava said that one is forbidden to recite the Shema.

The Gemara Asks:
אמר אביי מנא אמינא לה
Abaye said: What is my source?

Abaye answers:
דתנן הטמא עומד תחת האילן והטהור עובר טמא טהור עומד תחת האילן וטמא עובר טהור ואם עמד טמא
The Mishna says:
If a
Metzora
is standing under a tree and a Tahor person passes by him, the latter also becomes Tamei. If, however, a Tahor person is standing under a tree and a Metzora person passes by, the former stays Tahor. But should
the Metzora
remain standing there, then the former becomes Tamei.

וכן באבן המנוגעת
And the same law holds good with a stone which has Tzaraas.

The Gemara Asks:
ורבא
And Rava?

The Gemara Answers:
אמר לך התם בקביעותא תליא מילתא
He can
answer
that
when it comes to Tzaraas,
what matters
is whether the object is standing or moving.

דכתיב בדד ישב מחוץ למחנה מושבו
As the verse says:
"He shall dwell alone; his welling shall be outside the camp".

הכא והיה מחניך קדוש אמר רחמנא והא ליכא:
But the source for not praying next to excrement is the verse
:"Your camp shall be holy."

 
And the verse doesn't mention standing or moving, so presumably it doesn't matter - if the excrement is there, one is forbidden to pray next to it.
 
 
 
א"ר פפא פי חזיר כצואה עוברת דמי
Rav Papa said: A pig's snout is to be regarded as passing excrement.

The Gemara Asks:
פשיטא
That is obvious!

 
Pigs are filthy animals and its snout is presumably filled with the garbage it rolls around in.
 
 
The Gemara Answers:
לא צריכא אע"ג דסליק מנהרא
No.
This law is true even if
it just came up out of the river.

 
So even if a pig was washed, we still have to consider it's snout as excrement.
 
 
The Gemara will now discuss the law of doubtful excrement:
א"ר יהודה ספק צואה אסורה
Rav Yehuda said: If one is uncertain whether excrement is present,
one may not read the Shema.

ספק מי רגלים מותרים
If one is uncertain whether urine is present,
one may read the Shema.

א"ד אמר רב יהודה
Another version is: Rav Yehuda said:

ספק צואה בבית מותרת באשפה אסורה
If one is uncertain whether excrement is in their house, it is permitted
to read the Shema,
but not next to a garbage dump.

ספק מי רגלים אפילו באשפה נמי מותרין
If one is uncertain whether urine is present, even by a garbage dump it is permitted.

סבר לה כי הא דרב המנונא דאמר רב המנונא לא אסרה תורה אלא כנגד עמוד בלבד
His opinion agrees with that of Rav Hamnuna who said that the Torah only forbids
the Shema to be read next to
a stream
of urine.

 
And once it falls on the ground, Biblically one may recite the Shema next to it. So since there's a doubt if there's urine in the garbage dump, and even if there would be urine there it would only be prohibited Rabbinically, one may be lenient and recite the Shema there.
 
 
וכדרבי יונתן
He is also in agreement with Rabbi Yonasan.

דר' יונתן רמי
As Rabbi Yonasan said that there's a contradiction
between two verses:

כתיב ויד תהיה לך מחוץ למחנה ויצאת שמה חוץ
One verse says
"You shall have a place outside the camp, where you shall go."

 
Implying that one should excrete outside the camp, but one doesn't have to cover his excrement.
 
 
וכתיב ויתד תהיה לך וגו' וכסית את צאתך
And the next verse says
"And you shall have a shovel among your weapons; and
when you excrete, you shall dig there,
and shall turn back and cover
your excrement".

 
Implying that one does have to cover his excrement.
 
 
הא כיצד כאן בגדולים כאן בקטנים
How is this
contradiction resolved?
The latter verse refers to
excreting, while
the former to
urinating.

 
So Biblically, one doesn't have to cover urine. Presumably, the reason is that once it falls to the ground, it stops being viewed as "excrement".
 
 
אלמא קטנים לא אסרה תורה אלא כנגד עמוד בלבד
Infer, then, that the Torah forbids
the Shema to be read
near urine only when it is
flowing,

הא נפול לארעא שרי ורבנן הוא דגזרו בהו
But
once it falls on the
ground, it is permitted
by the Torah,
but the Rabbis have decreed against it.

וכי גזרו בהו רבנן בודאן אבל בספקן לא גזור
But
in which case
have the Rabbis decreed against
reciting the Shema next to standing urine?
When it is certain
that urine is there.
but if there is a doubt, they do not decree against it.

The Gemara Asks:
ובודאן עד כמה
Where it is certain
that urine is present,
how long
must one wait before it is allowed to read the Shema' there?

The Gemara Answers:
אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל כל זמן שמטפיחין
Rav Yehuda said in the name of Shmuel: As long as the urine is sufficiently wet to moisten.

וכן אמר רבה בב"ח א"ר יוחנן כל זמן שמטפיחין
The same reply is given by Rabbah Bar Bar Chanah in the name of Rabbi Yochanan:
One may recite the Shema as long as the urine is sufficiently wet
to moisten.

וכן אמר עולא כל זמן שמטפיחין
The same reply so too Ullah said:
One may recite the Shema as long as the urine is sufficiently wet
to moisten.

גניבא משמיה דרב אמר כל זמן שרשומן ניכר
Geniva said in the name of Rav
that one may recite the Shema
as long as a trace can be recognized.

א"ר יוסף שרא ליה מריה לגניבא
Rav Yosef said: May his teacher forgive Geniva.

השתא צואה אמר רב יהודה אמר רב כיון שקרמו פניה מותר מי רגלים מיבעיא
If regarding excrement Rav Yehuda said in the name of Rav
that one may recite the Shema when
the surface has hardened, all the more so regarding urine!

The Gemara Asks:
א"ל אביי מאי חזית דסמכת אהא סמוך אהא
Abaye said to him:
Why do you rely on Rav Yehuda in the name of Rav? Why not rely on the following teaching?

דאמר רבה בר רב הונא אמר רב צואה אפילו כחרס אסורה
As Rabbah Bar Rav Huna said in the name of Rav: It is forbidden
to read the Shema near
excrement, even when it is
dry
like earthenware.

The Gemara Asks:
והיכי דמי צואה כחרס
How dry
is "excrement like earthenware"?

The Gemara cites two answer:
אמר רבה בב"ח א"ר יוחנן כל זמן שזורקה ואינה נפרכת
Rabbah Bar Bar Chana said in the name of Rabbi Yochanan: When one can throw it to the ground without its crumbling to pieces.

וא"ד כל זמן שגוללה ואינה נפרכת
Others say: When one can roll it without its crumbling to pieces.

אמר רבינא הוה קאימנא קמיה דרב יהודה מדפתי חזא צואה אמר לי
Ravina said: I was once standing before Rav Yirmiya of Difti. He noticed
that there was
excrement
in front of him,
and he said to me,

עיין אי קרמו פניה אי לא
"See whether its surface has hardened or not."

א"ד הכי א"ל עיין אי מפלאי אפלויי
Another version is: He said to him, "See whether it has become cracked."

The Gemara concludes:
מאי הוי עלה
What is the conclusion?

The Gemara Answers:
אתמר
It has been reported:

צואה כחרס
When the excrement is like earthenware:

אמימר אמר אסורה
Ameimar said that it is forbidden.

ומר זוטרא אמר מותרת
Mar Zutra said that it is permitted.

אמר רבא הלכתא
Rava said: The Halacha is:

צואה כחרס אסורה
Reciting Shema in front of
excrement
that is dry
like earthenware is forbidden.

ומי רגלים כל זמן שמטפיחין
Reciting Shema in front of
urine
is forbidden as
long as the ground is sufficiently wet to moisten.

The Gemara Asks:
מיתיבי מי רגלים כל זמן שמטפיחין אסורין נבלעו או יבשו מותרים
A Braisa says:
As long as urine is wet enough to moisten, it is forbidden
to recite Shema in front of it;
but if it has been absorbed
in the soil
or dried up, it is permitted.

מאי לאו נבלעו דומיא דיבשו
Why not say
that
the requirements for urine to be considered
"soaked"
should be the same as
"dried"?

מה יבשו דאין רשומן ניכר אף נבלעו דאין רשומן ניכר
Just as when
urine
dries up, no trace can be recognized, so when it has "soaked" into the soil, there must be no trace left.

הא רשומן ניכר אסור אע"ג דאין מטפיחין
But if a trace
is visible,
it is forbidden
to read the Shema before it
even though the urine is not sufficiently wet to moisten?

The Gemara Answers:
ולטעמיך אימא רישא
But you can make this same argument the other way -

כל זמן שמטפיחין הוא דאסור הא רשומן ניכר שרי
"As long as urine is wet enough to moisten it is prohibited," implying that had the trace been recognizable, it should be permitted!

אלא מהא ליכא למשמע מינה
Rather, this Braisa can't be used as proof for either position.

The Gemara Asks:
לימא כתנאי
Can we say that it follows the following argument?

כלי שנשפכו ממנו מי רגלים אסור לקרות ק"ש כנגדו
It is forbidden to read the Shema by a vessel from which urine has been poured;

ומי רגלים עצמן שנשפכו נבלעו מותר לא נבלעו אסור
But
one is permitted to recite Shema in front of
spilled urine which has been absorbed,
but one may not recite the Shema in front of revealed urine.

ר' יוסי אומר כל זמן שמטפיחין
Rabbi Yossi says:
One may not read the Shema as
long as the urine is sufficiently wet to moisten.

The Gemara Asks:
מאי נבלעו ומאי לא נבלעו דקאמר ת"ק
How does the first opinion understand the words "absorbed" and "not absorbed"?

The Gemara attempts an answer:
אילימא נבלעו דאין מטפיחין לא נבלעו דמטפיחין
If "absorbed" means that the urine is not sufficiently wet to moisten, and "not absorbed" means that it can moisten,

ואתא ר' יוסי למימר כ"ז שמטפיחין הוא דאסור הא רשומן ניכר שרי
And Rabbi Yossi says that "As long as the urine is sufficiently wet to moisten" it is forbidden, but if the trace of urine
is recognizable,
it is permitted -

The Gemara rejects this answer:
היינו ת"ק
Then he is in agreement with the first Tanna!

The Gemara attempts another answer, which proves that the above argument follows the Tannaic argument:
אלא נבלעו דאין רשומן ניכר לא נבלעו דרשומן ניכר
Rather, the word "absorbed" must mean that no trace can be recognized and "not absorbed" means that the trace is recognizable,

ואתא ר' יוסי למימר כ"ז שמטפיחין הוא דאסור הא רשומן ניכר שרי
And Rabbi Yossi holds that "As long as the urine is sufficiently wet to moisten" it is forbidden, but if the trace can be recognized it is permitted.

The Gemara rejects the above answer and its proof:
לא דכ"ע כ"ז שמטפיחין הוא דאסור הא רשומן ניכר שרי
No; everybody agrees that as long as the urine can moisten it is forbidden, and if the trace can be recognized it is permitted,






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