Dedicate Daf 27a to:

היינו רבנן
He would agree
with the Sages.

The Gemara attempts another answer:
אלא מאי עד ולא עד בכלל
So does Rabbi Yehuda mean that Shacharis may be prayed until the fourth hour,
the fourth hour itself?

The Gemara rejects this answer:
אימא סיפא ושל מוספין כל היום ר' יהודה אומר עד שבע שעות
But the second part of the Braisa says that
may he said
any time in the day, but Rabbi Yehuda says that
it must be recited before
the seventh hour.

According to the above answer, it implies that Musaf may be said until 6:59.
But there is a teaching
which contradicts this implication:

There are two opinions:
היו לפניו שתי תפלות אחת של מוסף ואחת של מנחה מתפלל של מנחה ואחר כך של מוסף
one must pray
Musaf and Mincha, one first prays Mincha and then prays Musaf.

It's time to pray Mincha and he didn't pray Musaf yet.
שזו תדירה וזו אינה תדירה
the Mincha prayer
is more
frequently recited than the Musaf.

Mincha is recited every single day, while Musaf is recited only on Shabbos and holidays.
רבי יהודה אומר מתפלל של מוסף ואחר כך של מנחה שזו עוברת וזו אינה עוברת
Rabbi Yehuda says: One prays Musaf before Mincha, because
Musaf has an approaching deadline while Mincha doesn't.

So this implies that there is a time in the day when one can pray both Musaf and Mincha.
אי אמרת בשלמא עד ועד בכלל היינו דמשכחת להו שתי תפלות בהדי הדדי
This makes sense if
the word
"until" "includes", and thus the two
prayers overlap.

If the word "until" means "until and including", then the last time to pray Musaf ("until the seventh hour") would be until 1:00 PM, and the first time to pray Mincha would be at 12:30. So the discussion would be over which prayer should one say first if he didn't pray Musaf by 12:31.
אלא אי אמרת עד ולא עד בכלל היכי משכחת להו שתי תפלות בהדי הדדי
But if
the word
"until" is "excluding",
the prayers don't overlap!

כיון דאתיא לה של מנחה אזלא לה של מוספין
For when the time of Mincha arrived, the time to pray Musaf passed.

According to this opinion, the last time to pray Musaf would be 11:59, and the first time to pray Mincha would be at 12:30. So if one didn't pray Musaf by 12:31, it's too late for him and he may only pray Mincha.
The Gemara resolves:
אלא מאי עד ועד בכלל
the word
"Until" is "including".

Like the previous answer.
But how does the Gemara resolve the previous question:
קשיא רישא מאי איכא בין רבי יהודה לרבנן:
What is the practical difference
between Rabbi Yehuda's opinion and
that of the

The Gemara Answers:
מי סברת דהאי פלג מנחה פלג אחרונה קאמר
Who says that
"the middle of the Mincha" refers to the second half?

פלג ראשונה קאמר
He meant the first half,

והכי קאמר אימת נפיק פלג ראשונה ועייל פלג אחרונה
Rabbi Yehuda meant to say
"When does the first half conclude and the latter half commence?

מכי נפקי י"א שעות חסר רביע
At the end of the eleventh hour less a quarter."

The Gemara supports this reading from a Mishna:
אמר רב נחמן
Rav Nachman said:

אף אנן נמי תנינא רבי יהודה בן בבא העיד חמשה דברים
The Mishna says: Rabbi Yehuda Ben Bava testified over five matters:

שממאנין את הקטנה
We permit a woman to reject a marriage which has been contracted for her while she was a minor,

The case here is if a girl was married off to someone by her mother. Biblically, a father may marry his daughter off, and if the husband wants to divorce her, he must give her a proper divorce. Rabbinically, however, the mother is permitted to marry off her daughter also. The difference is that a girl who was only Rabbinically married does not required a proper divorce document, and is permitted to just walk off, and the marriage is retroactively annulled.
Most of the time, this isn't something good, but here Rabbi Yehuda Ben Bava says that there is one time when the court encourages the minor to undo her marriage:
If there are two brothers, one got married and then passed away without children, the other brother has a close
Although Ashkenazi custom is not to do Yibum anymore for other reasons.
commandment to perform Yibum, and marry the widow. This is true even if the second brother is married already. Although there is an exception. If the second brother is married to a close relative of the wife, he is forbidden to perform Yibum (and Chalitza).
This Mishna refers to the case where two brothers were married to two sisters, one brother married his wife Biblically (she was an adult) and the other brother married his wife Rabbinically. Then the first husband passed away. So now the second brother is stuck. Biblically, he's not considered married to his wife and should perform Yibum on the brother's wife. Though Rabbinically he's married, so he can't just do Yibum? So what does he do?
The Mishna in Yevamos (109a) says that it's an argument:
1. Rabbi Eliezer said that we make the minor leave her husband, retroactively canceling her marriage, allowing the former husband to perform Yibum.
2. Rabban Gamliel said that it's up to the minor girl what to do. If she wants she can leave, and if she doesn't want, she can stay, wait until she becomes and adult, and then she's considered to be married retroactively from before her brother - in - law's passing, freeing her sister from either Yibum or Chalitza.
3. Rabbi Yehoshua said that he must divorce his wife, as she's the sister of someone he must perform Yibum, and must perform Chalitza on his sister - in - law.
Yehuda Ben Bava said that the Halacha follows Rabbi Eliezer.
ושמשיאין את האשה על פי עד אחד
We permit a woman to remarry although there is only one witness,

Normally, we have a rule that testimony requires two witnesses, and testimony of a husband's death should require no less. But the Sages were lenient, knowing that often there simply aren't two witnesses. So they said that a single witness' testimony is enough to permit a wife to get remarried, but they were stringent that if the husband reappears, the wife would close
Because she's considered to have committed adultery with her second husband. Biblically she wouldn't be required to divorce her first husband, as she's considered to have committed adultery against her will. But the Sages were strict so that she'd do a proper investigation of that single witnesses' testimony before relying on it.
have to divorce him.
The Mishna is Yevamos (122a) says that according to some, this rule doesn't apply in Israel, and there a woman would have to bring two witnesses. But Rabbi Yehuda Ben Bava (and, the Mishna there adds Rabban Gamliel) says that even in Israel one can rely on a single witness.
ועל תרנגול שנסקל בירושלים על שהרג את הנפש
A rooster was stoned in Yerushalayim for having killed a child,

The verse says that an ox which killed someone is executed by stoning. Rabbi Yehuda Ben Bava said that all animals which killed someone are executed, even a chicken.
ועל יין בן ארבעים יום שנתנסך על גבי המזבח
Forty day old wine was poured over the altar,

He testified that forty day old wine is considered full "wine".
ועל תמיד של שחר שקרב בארבע שעות
The morning Tamid was brought in the first four hours.

ש"מ עד ועד בכלל ש"מ
Conclude from this that "until" is "inclusive".

The fifth teaching says explicitly that the morning Tamid (which, as mentioned above, is the source of the Shacharis) was brought
four hours (so it can be brought until 9:59). If "until" was "exclusive", Shacharis (as well as the Tamid) would be brought
four hours (8:59), unlike the Mishna.
The Gemara cites the Halacha:
אמר רב כהנא הלכה כרבי יהודה הואיל ותנן בבחירתא כוותיה
Rav Kahana said: The Halacha follows Rabbi Yehuda, since
the Mishna in Eduyos explicitly agrees with him.

The Mishna said that the morning Tamid was brought until (and throughout) the fourth hour, but not after that.
:ועל תמיד של שחר שקרב בארבע שעות:
"The morning Tamid was brought in the first four hours."

The Gemara Asks:
מאן תנא להא דתנן
Who does the following Braisa follow:

וחם השמש ונמס בארבע שעות
"The sun waxed hot, and it
(the Man)
melted" - this refers to the fourth hour of the day.

The Braisa asks:
אתה אומר בארבע שעות או אינו אלא בשש שעות
How do you know it means
"the fourth hour"? Maybe it means the sixth hour!

The Gemara Answers:
כשהוא אומר כחום היום הרי שש שעות
If the verse
"In the heat of the day" refers to six hours,

The verse doesn't say "In the heat of the
" but "the heat of the
". This implies that this incident happened at noon, when it's hot everywhere.
אמור הא מה אני מקיים וחם השמש ונמס בארבע שעות
The verse
"The sun waxed hot, and it melted" must refer to the fourth hour.

Since the verse says "the
was hot", implies that it was hot only in the sun (and not the shade), which is true during the fourth hour.
The Gemara returns back to its question:
מני לא רבי יהודה ולא רבנן
In accordance with whose opinion is this? It can be neither Rabbi Yehuda's nor the Sages'.

אי רבי יהודה עד ארבע שעות נמי צפרא הוא אי רבנן עד חצות נמי צפרא הוא
If it were Rabbi Yehuda's, up to
and including
the fourth hour is still morning; and if it were the Sages', up to midday is still morning!

The verse says "And they gather the Man in the morning, in the morning, and when the sun waxed hot, it melted", implying that the morning ended by the time the Man melted - which happened at the fourth hour. This implies that "morning" ends before the fourth hour, arguing with both Rabbi Yehuda (who says that "morning" goes into the fourth hour) and the Sages (who says that "morning" goes until midday).
The Gemara cites two answers:
אי בעית אימא רבי יהודה
1. I can say that this Braisa follows
Rabbi Yehuda,

אי בעית אימא רבנן
2. I can say that this Braisa follows
the Sages.

אי בעית אימא רבנן אמר קרא בבקר בבקר חלקהו לשני בקרים
This Braisa can follow the Sages' view,
since the verse says "In the morning, in the morning", it divides
the morning period into two.

They gathered the Man for the first
hours of the day, which is the "first morning", and the Man melted in the fourth hour of the day, which is the (beginning of the) second morning.
ואי בעית אימא רבי יהודה האי בקר יתירא להקדים לו שעה אחת
This Braisa can follow Rabbi Yehuda's view,
the reason that the extra
teaches that the time the time to gather the Man was
one hour
before morning ends.

Similar to how the Sages expound the verse, but he doesn't hold of the "second morning" (he holds that morning only goes until the fourth hour). Rather, the extra word "morning" says that they stopped gathered Man an hour before the morning ended.
The Gemara Asks:
דכולא עלמא מיהא וחם השמש ונמס בארבע שעות
Everyone agrees
that the verse
"The sun waxed hot, and it melted" means
that the Man melted
in the fourth hour.

מאי משמע
What is the source?

The Gemara Answers:
אמר רבי אחא בר יעקב
Rav Acha Bar Yaakov said:

אמר קרא וחם השמש ונמס איזו היא שעה שהשמש חם והצל צונן
The verse says:
"The sun waxed hot, and it melted" - in what hour is the sun hot and the shade cool?

הוי אומר בארבע שעות
The fourth hour.

:תפלת המנחה עד הערב וכו':
The Mincha
may he said
until the evening. Rabbi Yehuda says: Until the middle of the afternoon.

The Gemara Asks:
אמר ליה רב חסדא לרב יצחק
Rav Chisda asked Rav Yitzchak:

התם אמר רב כהנא הלכה כרבי יהודה הואיל ותנן בבחירתא כוותיה הכא מאי
Rav Kahana ruled that the the Halacha
Rabbi Yehuda's
opinion that Shacharis may be recited until the fourth hour. The reason stated above was
a Mishna in Eduyos agreed with him.
But what
is the Halacha here? How late may one pray Mincha?

The Gemara Answers:
אישתיק ולא אמר ליה ולא מידי
Rav Yitzchak
was silent and
didn't answer him.

אמר רב חסדא
Rav Chisda
tried answering on his own:

נחזי אנן מדרב מצלי של שבת בערב שבת מבעוד יום ש"מ הלכה כרבי יהודה
From the fact that Rav prayed
Shabbos' Maariv prayer
Friday afternoon
during the day, perhaps we can conclude that the Halacha follows Rabbi Yehuda.

If he prayed Maariv on Friday after the "middle of the afternoon", it shows that it's already considered part of the night, following Rabbi Yehuda's opinion.
The Gemara rejects this answer:
אדרבה מדרב הונא ורבנן לא הוו מצלו עד אורתא שמע מינה אין הלכה כרבי יהודה
On the contrary, from the fact that Rav Huna and the Sages did not say the
Shabbos' Maariv prayer
until night, conclude that the Halacha doesn't follow Rabbi Yehuda.

השתא דלא אתמר הלכתא לא כמר ולא כמר דעבד כמר עבד ודעבד כמר עבד
Since it's not conclusive who the Halacha follows,
he who
followed one fulfilled his obligation,
and he who
followed the other
the other
fulfilled his obligation.

The Gemara will mention a story of one praying the Shabbos Maariv prayer on Friday afternoon:
רב איקלע לבי גניבא וצלי של שבת בערב שבת
Rav visited the house of Geniva and said the
Shabbos Maariv prayers
Friday afternoon,

והוה מצלי רבי ירמיה בר אבא לאחוריה דרב
Rabbi Yirmiya Bar Abba was praying behind Rav,

וסיים רב ולא פסקיה לצלותיה דרבי ירמיה
And when
finished his prayer he did not interrupt Rabbi Yirmiya's prayers.

שמע מינה תלת
We can derive three
laws from here:

שמע מינה מתפלל אדם של שבת בערב שבת
One may pray
the Shabbos Maariv prayer on Friday afternoon.

ושמע מינה מתפלל תלמיד אחורי רבו
One may pray behind his teacher.

ושמע מינה אסור לעבור כנגד המתפללין
It is forbidden to pass in front of those who are praying.

מסייע ליה לרבי יהושע בן לוי דאמר רבי יהושע בן לוי
This last teaching
supports the teaching of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, who says:

אסור לעבור כנגד המתפללין
It is forbidden to in front of those who are praying.

The Gemara Asks:
But it is

והא רבי אמי ורבי אסי חלפי
But Rabbi Assi and Rabbi Ami did
pass in front of people praying.

רבי אמי ורבי אסי חוץ לארבע אמות הוא דחלפי
They walked
more that four cubits away from
those praying.

The Gemara Asks:
ורבי ירמיה היכי עביד הכי
But how could Rabbi Yirmiya
pray behind his teacher?

והא אמר רב יהודה אמר רב
But Rav Yehuda said in the name of Rav:

לעולם אל יתפלל אדם
One should never pray

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