Dedicate Daf 35a to:



Chapter Six
The Mishna asks:
כיצד מברכין על הפירות
What blessing do we say over fruit?

The Mishna answers:
על פירות האילן הוא אומר בורא פרי העץ
Over the fruit of trees, one says
"Blessed are You, Hashem our G - d, Master of the universe
who created the fruit of the tree,

חוץ מן היין שעל היין הוא אומר בורא פרי הגפן
Except for wine, on which one says "...Who creates the fruit of the vine."

ועל פירות הארץ הוא אומר בורא פרי האדמה
Over the fruits of the earth one says: "...Who creates the fruit of the ground",

חוץ מן הפת שעל הפת הוא אומר המוציא לחם מן הארץ
Except for bread, over which one says "...Who brings bread from the earth."

ועל הירקות הוא אומר בורא פרי האדמה
Over vegetables one says "... Who creates the fruit of the ground."

רבי יהודה אומר בורא מיני דשאים:
Rabbi Yehuda says
that one blesses
"... Who creates the kinds of herbs."

Gemara
The Gemara Asks:
מנא ה"מ
What is the source of this?

The Gemara Answers:
דתנו רבנן
The Sage taught:

קדש הלולים לה' מלמד שטעונים ברכה לפניהם ולאחריהם
The verse
"On the fourth year,
all of its fruit shall be holy, to
say
praise to Hashem" teaches that one must say a blessing before and after eating from them.

מכאן אמר ר"ע אסור לאדם שיטעום כלום קודם שיברך
Thus, Rabbi Akiva said that one is forbidden to eat before making a blessing.

The Gemara Asks:
והאי קדש הלולים להכי הוא דאתא
But is the phrase "holy for giving praise" intended to teach that
one must bless before eating?

האי מיבעי ליה
But it teaches two other rules:

חד דאמר רחמנא אחליה והדר אכליה
1.
The owner
must redeem
the fruit of the fourth year, and only then
eat it ;

 
If one wants to eat of the fourth fruit outside of Yerushalayim, he has to exchange the holiness of the fruit onto money, and then he may eat the fruit wherever he wants. Later, he'll have to take the money to Yerushalayim and spend it on fruit, eating it there.
 
 
ואידך דבר הטעון שירה טעון חלול ושאינו טעון שירה אין טעון חלול
2. Only those things which require "a song of praise" require redemption, but those things which don't require "a song of praise," don't require redemption.

 
In the Beis Hamikdash , the Levites would sing only when the wine libation was served.
This teaches that only fourth year grapes must be brought to Yerushalayim. Any other fourth year fruit may be eaten regularly.
 
 
וכדר' שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן
This is according to the statement of Rabbi Shmuel Bar Nachmani in the name of Rabbi Yonasan who said:

דאמר ר' שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן
As Rabbi Shmuel Bar Nachmani said in the name of Rabbi Yonasan:

מנין שאין אומרים שירה אלא על היין
What is the source that
the Levites
would sing only when wine
was offered on the Mizbeach?

שנאמר ותאמר להם הגפן החדלתי את תירושי המשמח אלהים ואנשים
The close
This refers to a parable said by Yosam , the son of Gidon . After Gidon's passing, one of his sons proclaimed himself king, and had his brothers murdered. Yosam escaped and said the following parable: Once, the trees decided to appoint themselves a king. They came to the olive tree, who refused. They came to the vine, who refused, they came to the date, who refused. Finally, they came to the thorn, who accepted. He explained the parable, saying that among his brothers were scholars, who cared for Torah, wealthy people who wanted wealth, and worldly people who loved wisdom. But since none of them cared for the throne, the empty thorn ended up being crowned as king.
verse
says: "The vine said: 'Have I stopped yielding my produce, which makes man and G - d happy?'"

אם אנשים משמח אלהים במה משמח
But if
wine
gladdens man, how does it gladden Hashem?

מכאן שאין אומרים שירה אלא על היין
This is the source
that the Levites sing praise only over the wine
libation.

The Gemara continues building the question:
הניחא למאן דתני נטע רבעי
Those opinions that say that all fourth year fruits
require redemption can use an extra Hilul to teach that one must say a blessing before eating.

אלא למאן דתני כרם רבעי מאי איכא למימר
But
what source does the original opinion mentioned above - the opinion
who says that only a fourth year vineyard requires redemption
- have to require a blessing?

דאתמר ר' חייא ור' שמעון ברבי
As Rabbi Chiya and Rabbi Shimon Ben Rebbi
argue -

חד תני כרם רבעי
One teaches
that only
fourth year grapes
have to be eaten in Yerushalayim,

וחד תני נטע רבעי
While the other
teaches that all fourth year plants
must be eaten in Yerushalayim.

The Gemara continues building the question:
ולמאן דתני כרם רבעי הניחא אי יליף ג"ש
Even according to those who say that
only
fourth year
grapes
must be eaten in Yerushalayim, one has an extra Hilul to derive that one must bless before eating if one derives it from a Gezeira Shava .

דתניא ר' אומר נאמר כאן להוסיף לכם תבואתו ונאמר להלן ותבואת הכרם
As Rebbi says:
One verse says
"That it may add to your produce," and
another verse says:
"The produce of the of the vineyard".

מה להלן כרם אף כאן כרם אייתר ליה חד הלול לברכה
The Gezeira Shava links the words "produce" - just as the produce mentioned in the second verse refers to a
vineyard, so too is the produce
which one must take to Yerushalayim
a vineyard.

ואי לא יליף גזרה שוה ברכה מנא ליה
But
there's an opinion who says that only grapes have to be eaten in Yerushalayim, and
doesn't hold of the Gezeira Shava .
He uses both Hiluls for other laws, so he doesn't have any left to derive that one must say a blessing before eating.

The Gemara asks a second question:
ואי נמי יליף גזרה שוה אשכחן לאחריו לפניו מנין
Even according to the opinion that
has an extra Hilul to teach that one must say a blessing before eating,
what's the source that one makes a blessing after eating?

The Gemara answers this second question:
הא לא קשיא דאתיא בקל וחומר
One can derive that one makes a blessing after eating from
logic -

כשהוא שבע מברך כשהוא רעב לא כל שכן
If one must bless Hashem when he's satiated, all the more so must one make a blessing when he's hungry!

But there's a further question:
אשכחן כרם שאר מינין מנין
The verse "Holy for praising Hashem" can teach that one must say a blessing before eating
grapes. What's the source that one must bless before eating other foods?

The Gemara attempts to answer this question:
דיליף מכרם
One can derive
the law that one must make a blessing on all foods from the requirement to make a blessing on grapes:

מה כרם דבר שנהנה וטעון ברכה אף כל דבר שנהנה טעון ברכה
Why must one make a blessing on grapes?
Because one benefits from them! So too, any time one eats and gets benefit, he must say a blessing.

The Gemara rejects this question:
איכא למפרך מה לכרם שכן חייב בעוללות
Perhaps
grapes
are special. For example, one is obligated to
leave behind unripe grapes,
while one isn't obligated to leave behind any other unripe fruit!

The Gemara attempts another answer:
קמה תוכיח
If we can't derive that one has to make a blessing on food from grapes, perhaps we can
derive
that we have to make a blessing on food
from grain.

The Gemara rejects this answer:
מה לקמה שכן חייבת בחלה
Perhaps grains are special. For example, one has to separate
Challah
from grain dough, and one doesn't have to take Challah from any other type of dough.

The Gemara attempts to answer again:
כרם יוכיח
So maybe we can
derive
the law that one has to bless on food from
grapes.

וחזר הדין
And the logic
depends on two points:

לא ראי זה כראי זה ולא ראי זה כראי זה
There are two types of food which require definitely blessing: Grains and grapes. Each one has something special about it, but since they both require blessing, it shows that it's the common denominator that requires blessing.

הצד השוה שבהן דבר שנהנה וטעון ברכה אף כל דבר שנהנה טעון ברכה
What's
the common denominator?
The only thing that grapes and grains have in common is that one
benefits
from eating them - so it must be that anything which gives one benefit from eating requires a blessing.

The Gemara rejects this answer:
מה להצד השוה שבהן שכן יש בו צד מזבח
They both have another
common denominator - they are both offered on the Mizbeach.

ואתי נמי זית דאית ביה צד מזבח
But, as an aside, at least this common denominator proves that one must say a blessing on
olives, as they are offered on the Mizbeach
(as olive oil).

The Gemara asks on this aside:
וזית מצד מזבח אתי
Do we say a blessing before eating
olives
because it was offered on the Mizbeach?

והא בהדיא כתיב ביה כרם
But an
olive orchard
is also called a vineyard,

דכתיב ויבער מגדיש ועד קמה ועד כרם זית
As the verse says:
"And he burned from the harvested grain to the standing grain, and also the olive vineyards".

The Gemara Answers:
אמר רב פפא כרם זית אקרי כרם סתמא לא אקרי
Rav Papa answered:
An olive orchard is only called an
"olive vineyard", not just a vineyard.

The Gemara still has the question:
מ"מ קשיא
Nevertheless the difficulty remains:

מה להצד השוה שבהן שכן יש בהן צד מזבח
We can't derive the law that we must make a blessing before eating from grapes and grains since
they are both offered on the Mizbeach.

The Gemara attempts to find another source for saying blessings before eating:
אלא דיליף לה משבעת המינין
One can
derive
the law that one must make a blessing before eating from
the seven species
which Israel is known for.

מה שבעת המינין דבר שנהנה וטעון ברכה אף כל דבר שנהנה טעון ברכה
Why do we have to make a blessing before eating the seven species?
Because we eat them and they benefit us. So too, all foods which are beneficial require a blessing.

The Gemara rejects this answer for two reasons:
מה לשבעת המינין שכן חייבין בבכורים
1.
The seven species
are special, since they have to be brought as first fruits. So maybe that's why one must make a blessing before eating them?

ועוד התינח לאחריו לפניו מנין
2. Even this source only proves that one must make a blessing
after
he eats.
What's
the source that one must make a blessing
before
he eats?

The Gemara rejects the second question:
הא לא קשיא דאתיא בקל וחומר
One can derive that one makes a blessing after eating from
logic -

כשהוא שבע מברך כשהוא רעב לא כל שכן
If one must bless Hashem when he's satiated, all the more so must one make a blessing when he's hungry!

The Gemara Asks:
ולמאן דתני נטע רבעי הא תינח כל דבר נטיעה
Moreover, even according to the opinion that all
fourth
year
fruits must be eaten in Yerushalayim,
the word Hilulim would only teach that
plants require a blessing.

דלאו בר נטיעה כגון בשר ביצים ודגים מנא ליה
But what is the source for
saying a blessing on foods that don't come from the ground, such as
meat, eggs, and fish?

The Gemara concludes that the source for blessing is not Biblical. Rather ...
אלא סברא הוא אסור לו לאדם שיהנה מן העולם הזה בלא ברכה:
Rather, it is logical that one shouldn't be allowed to benefit from this world without a blessing.

The Gemara talks blessings and sacrilege:
ת"ר
Our Sages have taught:

אסור לו לאדם שיהנה מן העוה"ז בלא ברכה
One is forbidden to benefit from this world without a blessing

וכל הנהנה מן העוה"ז בלא ברכה מעל
And one who does so commits sacrilege.

The Gemara Asks:
מאי תקנתיה
What should he do?

The Gemara Answers:
ילך אצל חכם
Let him go to a Sage.

The Gemara Asks:
ילך אצל חכם מאי עביד ליה
Let him go to a Sage! What can he do for him?

הא עביד ליה איסורא
He has already violated the prohibition
of benefiting from this world without a blessing.

The Gemara changes the teaching:
אלא אמר רבא ילך אצל חכם מעיקרא וילמדנו ברכות כדי שלא יבא לידי מעילה
Rather, Rava said that one should go to a Sage,
and the Sage
will teach him the blessings so that he should not come to commit sacrilege.

אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל
Rav Yehuda said in the name of Shmuel:

כל הנהנה מן העוה"ז בלא ברכה כאילו נהנה מקדשי שמים
One who enjoys something from this world without a blessing is considered as if he had partaken of sanctified
food,

שנא' לה' הארץ ומלואה
As the verse says:
"The earth, and all that is in it, is Hashem's."

The Gemara Asks:
ר' לוי רמי
Rabbi Levi asked:

כתיב לה' הארץ ומלואה וכתיב השמים שמים לה' והארץ נתן לבני אדם
One verse says:
"The earth, and all that is in it, is Hashem's,"
while another verse says
"The heavens are the heavens of Hashem, but the earth He gave to the children of men".

 
Does the earth belong to Hashem or to us?
 
 
The Gemara Answers:
לא קשיא כאן קודם ברכה
There is no contradiction -
the verse which says that everything belongs to Hashem refers to its state
before
one says
a blessing,






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