Dedicate Daf 10b to:



אלא ויקריא
Rather,
Avraham
made others call out
to Hashem.

מלמד שהקריא אברהם אבינו לשמו של הקב"ה
=הקדוש ברוך הוא
בפה כל עובר ושב
This verse
teaches that Avraham caused Hashem's name to be called out by all who came by.

The Gemara Asks:
כיצד
How
did he do that?

The Gemara Answers:
לאחר שאכלו ושתו עמדו לברכו
After the
guests
ate and drank, they arose to bless him.

אמר להם
Avraham asked them:

וכי משלי אכלתם משל אלהי עולם אכלתם
"Did you eat of my produce? You ate from the Master of the Universe!"

הודו ושבחו וברכו למי שאמר והיה העולם
The guests
admitted
that Avraham was right,
and praised and blessed Hashem.

 
 
 
The Gemara continues discussing Yehuda:
ויראה יהודה ויחשבה לזונה כי כסתה פניה
"And Yehuda saw her and thought she was a harlot, for she covered her face."

The Gemara Asks:
משום דכסתה פניה חשבה לזונה
Yehuda
thought
Tamar
was a harlot because she covered her face?

The Gemara Answers:
א"ר
=אמר רבי
אלעזר שכסתה פניה בבית חמיה
Rabbi Elazar said that
Yehuda didn't recognize her since
she covered her face in
his, i.e
her father - in - law's house,

 
Yehuda didn't think that the "harlot" was Tamar since it was out of character for her as Tamar was too modest to do such a thing.
 
 
דא"ר
=דאמר רבי
שמואל בר נחמני א"ר
=אמר רבי
יונתן כל כלה שהיא צנועה בבית חמיה זוכה ויוצאין ממנה מלכים ונביאים
As Rabbi Shmuel bar Nachmeni said in the name of Rabbi Yonasan that any bride who is modest in her father - in - law's house will merit to have kings and prophets
as descendants.

The Gemara Asks:
מנלן
How does
Rabbi Yonasan know this?

The Gemara Answers:
מתמר
From Tamar
having kings and prophets as descendants:

נביאים דכתיב חזון ישעיהו בן אמוץ
The source that Tamar had descendants who were
prophets
is the verse which
says "A vision of Yeshayahu ben close
Who, as the Gemara will prove, was a descendant of Dovid, who was a descendant of Yehuda and Tamar.
Amotz ",

מלכים מדוד
And the source that Tamar had descendants who were
Kings
is from King
David.

ואמר רבי לוי דבר זה מסורת בידינו מאבותינו אמוץ ואמציה אחים הוו
Rabbi Levi said that there is a tradition from our forefathers that Amotz and Amatzia were brothers.

 
The Davidic dynasty comes from Yehuda's son Peretz, who was a son of Tamar, so Amatzia (a King and descendant of Dovid HaMelech) and Yeshayahu (the son of Amotz, the brother of Amatzia) were descendants of Tamar.
 
 
 
 
היא מוצאת
"She found"

 
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
היא מיתוצאת מיבעי ליה
The verse
should have said "She was taken out"

The Gemara Answers:
א"ר
=אמר רבי
אלעזר לאחר שנמצאו סימניה בא סמאל וריחקן בא גבריאל וקירבן
Rabbi Elazar said that after
Tamar's pledge
were found, close
The angel of Eisav .
Samael pushed them away, but Gavriel brought them close.

 
So she
found
the pledge.
 
 
היינו דכתיב למנצח על יונת אלם רחוקים לדוד מכתם
And about that
incident, the verse
says "For the conductor; On the Muted dove
A Psalm
of Dovid; Michtam ."

א"ר
=אמר רבי
יוחנן משעה שנתרחקו סימניה נעשית כיונה אילמת
Rabbi Yochanan said that when her
pledge
were pushed away,
Tamar
became like a mute dove.

The Gemara will now explain the verse in three ways:
לדוד מכתם
"A Michtam for Dovid"

שיצא ממנה דוד שהיה מך ותם לכל
1.
Dovid came from her, who was pure and modest to all.

דבר אחר מכתם שהיתה מכתו תמה שנולד כשהוא מהול
2.
Michtam - that
Dovid's
"wound" was born complete, as he was born circumcised.

דבר אחר מכתם כשם שבקטנותו הקטין עצמו אצל מי שגדול ממנו ללמוד תורה כך בגדולתו
3.
Michtam - Just as when
Dovid
was small he would lower himself to learn Torah from someone greater than himself, so too when
Dovid
became king
he would lower himself to others to learn Torah
.

 
As is described in .
 
 
 
והיא שלחה אל חמיה לאמר לאיש אשר אלה לו אנכי הרה
"She sent to her father - in - law, saying: 'I am with child by the man to whom these belong.'"

 
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
ותימא ליה מימר
Why didn't she clearly say
that she was pregnant from Yehuda?

The Gemara Answers:
אמר רב זוטרא בר טוביה אמר רב
Rav Zutra said in the name of Rav,

ואמרי לה אמר רב חנא בר ביזנא אמר רבי שמעון חסידא
And some say that Rav Chana bar Bizna said in the name of Rabbi Shimon Chasida,

ואמרי לה אמר רבי יוחנן משום ר'
=רבי
שמעון בן יוחי
And some say that Rabbi Yochanan said it in the name of Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai:

נוח לו לאדם שיפיל עצמו לתוך כבשן האש ואל ילבין פני חבירו ברבים
It's better to jump into a fiery furnace over embarrassing someone publicly.

The Gemara Asks:
מנלן
How
does he know this?

The Gemara Answers:
מתמר
From Tamar
's decision to take the fall and not to embarrass Yehuda.

 
 
 
 
הכר נא
"Discern, I beg"

 
 
 
א"ר
=אמר רבי
חמא ברבי חנינא
Rabbi Chama the son of Rabbi Chanina said:

בהכר בישר לאביו בהכר בישרוהו
Since Yehuda
informed
painful tidings to his
father
through the word
"Recognize", so
too
was
Yehuda painfully
informed
through the word
"Recognize".

בהכר בישר הכר נא הכתנת בנך היא
Yehuda
informed
his father with the word
recognize,
as the verse says
"Recognize this cloak, is it of your son?"

בהכר בישרוהו הכר נא למי נא
So with "recognize" was he was informed,
as the verse says
"recognize, please, to whom does this belong".

 
 
 
אין נא אלא לשון בקשה
And the word
"please" is
a
plea:

אמרה ליה
Tamar
told
Yehuda:

בבקשה ממך הכר פני בוראך ואל תעלים עיניך ממני
"I plead of you, recognize your Master's Face, and don't conceal your eyes from me."

 
 
 
ויכר יהודה ויאמר צדקה ממני
"And Yehuda acknowledged them, and said: 'She is more righteous than I'".

 
 
 
היינו דאמר רב חנין בר ביזנא א"ר
=רבי
שמעון חסידא
That is what Rav Chanin bar Bizna said in the name of Rabbi Shimon Chasida:

יוסף שקדש ש"ש
=שם שמים
בסתר זכה והוסיפו לו אות אחת משמו של הקב"ה
=הקדוש ברוך הוא
Yosef, who privately sanctified Hashem's name, merited to have a letter of Hashem's name added to his
name,

דכתיב עדות ביהוסף שמו
As
the verse
says "He appointed it in Yehosef for a testimony".

 
The verse added a letter "Hei" in Yosef's name, making it YeHoSef .
 
 
יהודה שקדש ש"ש
=שם שמים
בפרהסיא זכה ונקרא כולו על שמו של הקב"ה
=הקדוש ברוך הוא
Yehuda, who publicly sanctified Hashem's name, merited to have his whole name contain
the
letters of Hashem's
name.

 
As Yehuda's name is made up of Hashem's four letter name with a "Daled" in the middle.
 
 
כיון שהודה ואמר צדקה ממני יצתה בת קול ואמרה
Once
Yehuda
admitted and said "She is more righteous than me", a
Heavenly
voice
rang out
and said:

אתה הצלת תמר ושני בניה מן האור חייך שאני מציל בזכותך ג' מבניך מן האור
"You saved Tamar and her two sons from fire, by your life I will save three of your descendants from fire".

The Gemara clarifies:
The Gemara Asks:
מאן נינהו
Who were
these three?

The Gemara Answers:
חנניה מישאל ועזריה
Chananya, Mishael, and Azarya.

 
Who were descendants of King David. They were thrown into a furnace by Nevuchadnetzar for refusing to bow down to an idol, and were miraculously saved.
 
 
 
צדקה ממני
"She is righteous.
She is pregnant
from me"

 
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
מנא ידע
How did
Yehuda
know
that Tamar was pregnant from him? Perhaps she was pregnant from other men also?

The Gemara Answers:
יצתה בת קול ואמרה ממני יצאו כבושים
A
Heavenly
voice
rang out
and said "This secret came from Me".

 
 
 
ולא יסף עוד לדעתה
"And he knew her again no more."

 
 
 
אמר שמואל סבא חמוה דרב שמואל בר אמי משמיה דרב שמואל בר אמי
Rabbi Shmuel the Elder, the father - in - law of Rav Shmuel bar Ami said in the name of Rav Shmuel bar Ami:

כיון שידעה שוב לא פסק ממנה
Once
Yehuda
was intimate with
Tamar,
he never stopped
being intimate with her.

כתיב הכא ולא יסף עוד לדעתה
The verse said about Yehuda and Tamar
that he never stopped being intimate with her,

וכתיב התם קול גדול ולא יסף:
And the verse says about the giving of the Torah
"with a great voice, and it didn't stop."

 
 
 
:אבשלום נתגאה בשערו וכו':
Discussed in Mishna Avshalom was haughty about his hair.

The Gemara will now discuss Avshalom:
 
Avshalom was a son of King David who rebelled against his father (as a punishment for his sin with Bas Sheva ).
 
He had a sister (named Tamar) who her brother ( Amnon ) desired to close
But they themselves were not siblings.
marry , but Tamar refused. Tricking her, Amnon pretended to be sick, and had her bring him food. When they were alone, he attacked her and had relations with her. Avshalom was furious and killed Amnon .
 
Some time later, Avshalom made a plot to rebel against his father. He flattered the masses, and proclaimed himself king. Hearing that Avshalom had a huge following, including his own advisor Achitophel, King David fled from Yerushalayim, leaving behind a double agent.
 
When Avshalom reached Yerushalayim, Achitophel suggested that he be intimate with King David's concubines, close
Only a king is permitted to be intimate with a former king's concubines. So the people would see that Avshalom is serious about his rebellion and will never be able to negotiate a separate peace with his father.
solidifying the rebellion. But he was left unsure how to proceed from there. Dovid fled Yerushalayim without a strong organized army, and Achitophel suggested to attack him right then. Dovid's double agent suggested that Avshalom build up his army first, and only then attack Dovid. Miraculously, despite the fame of Achitophel and his wisdom, Avshalom followed the advice of Dovid's double agent and delayed the battle.
 
In the meanwhile, King David ran across the Jordan and prepared for battle. Before the battle, King David ordered his men to save Avshalom. King David's men won the battle, someone found Avshalom hanging by his hair from a tree and, despite Dovid's explicit order, Yoav killed Avshalom.
 
 
ת"ר
=תנו רבנן
The Sages taught:

אבשלום בשערו מרד
Avshalom rebelled with his hair,

שנאמר וכאבשלום לא היה איש יפה וגו'
=וגומר
ובגלחו את ראשו (וגו') והיה מקץ ימים לימים אשר יגלח כי כבד עליו וגלחו ושקל את שער ראשו מאתים שקלים באבן המלך
As
the verse
says "Now
in all Israel
there was none to be so much praised as Avshalom for his beauty ... And when he cut his head - now it was at every year's close
As Avshalom was a lifelong Nazir, he was allowed to cut his hair only once a year.
end that he cut it; because the hair was heavy on him, therefore he cut it - he weighed the hair of his head at two hundred shekels, by the king's stone."

תנא אבן שאנשי טבריא ואנשי ציפורי שוקלים בה
(A Braisa
taught
that "the king's stone" is the size of
the stone with which the people of Teverya and Tzipori measure.
)

לפיכך נתלה בשערו
Therefore,
as
a punishment,
he was hung by his hair:

שנאמר ויקרא אבשלום לפני עבדי דוד ואבשלום רוכב על הפרד ויבא הפרד תחת שובך האלה הגדולה ויאחז ראשו באלה ויותן בין השמים ובין הארץ והפרד אשר תחתיו עבר
As
the verse
says "And Avshalom chanced to meet the servants of Dovid. And Avshalom was riding upon his mule, and the mule went under the thick boughs of a great tree, and his head caught hold of the tree, and he was taken up between the heaven and the earth; and the mule that was under him went on."

שקל ספסירא בעא למיפסקיה
Avshalom
took a sword to cut off
his hair and free himself,

תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל באותה שעה נבקע שאול מתחתיו
The academy of Rabbi Yishmael said Gehenom opened under him.

 
 
 
ירגז המלך ויעל על עליית השער ויבך וכה אמר בלכתו בני אבשלום בני בני
אבשלום
מי יתן מותי אני תחתיך אבשלום בני בני והמלך לאט את פניו ויזעק המלך קול גדול בני אבשלום אבשלום בני בני
"And the king was much moved, and went up to the chamber over the gate, and wept; and as he went, thus he said: 'O my son Avshalom, my son, my son Avshalom! would I had died for you, O Avshalom, my son, my son! '"

 
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
הני תמניא בני למה
Why did
Dovid
say "my son" eight times?

The Gemara Answers:
שבעה דאסקיה משבעה מדורי גיהנם
Seven times to take
Avshalom
out of the seven levels of Gehenom.

The Gemara Asks:
ואידך
And the last
eighth
time?

The Gemara cites two answers:
איכא דאמרי דקריב רישיה לגבי גופיה
1.
Some say it was to bring
Avshalom's
head to his his body
for burial.

ואיכא דאמרי דאייתיה לעלמא דאתי
2.
And some say it was to bring
Avshalom
to the World to Come.

 
 
 
ואבשלום לקח ויצב לו בחייו
"Now Avshalom in his life - time had taken and reared up for himself"

 
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
מאי לקח
What did
Avshalom
take?

The Gemara Answers:
אמר ריש לקיש שלקח מקח רע לעצמו
Reish Lakish said that
Avshalom
took a "bad purchase" for himself.

 
 
 
את מצבת אשר בעמק המלך וגו'
"The pillar, which is in the king's valley."

 
 
 
א"ר
=אמר רבי
חנינא בר פפא בעצה עמוקה של מלכו של עולם
Rabbi Chanina the son of Papa said that it was the deep advice of the King of the Universe
that caused him to rebel.






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Dedicated in loving memory of Leah Rivka Bas Reb Dovid HaKohen A"H.
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