Dedicate Daf 11a to:



דכתיב הנני מקים עליך רעה מביתך
As a verse says
says "Behold, I will raise up evil against you out of your own house."

 
As a result of the story of Bas Sheva, Hashem decreed that a member of Dovid's household will cause him a grave trouble. Here, the verse says that it Avshalom's (bad) choice to fulfill that decree.
 
 
כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר וישלחהו מעמק חברון
So too,
the Gemara interprets the verse which says
"And
Yosef
was sent from the depth of Chevron"
in the same way, as ...

א"ר
=אמר רבי
חנינא בר פפא בעצה עמוקה של אותו צדיק שקבור בחברון
Rabbi Chanina bar Papa said that this refers to the "deep
plot
:"
(which Hashem warned Avraham -
who's buried in Chevron.
)

דכתיב ידוע תדע כי גר יהיה זרעך
"Know surely that your seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs."

 
 
 
כי אמר אין לי בן
"For he said: 'I have no son
to keep my name in remembrance.
'"

 
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
ולא הוו ליה בני
But didn't
Avshalom
have a son?

והכתיב ויולדו לאבשלום שלשה בנים ובת אחת
The verse says
"And to Avshalom were born three sons and one daughter?"

The Gemara Answers:
אמר רב יצחק בר אבדימי שלא היה לו בן הגון למלכות
Rav Yitzchak bar Avdimi said that
the verse means that Avshalom
didn't have a son who was fit for the throne.

רב חסדא אמר גמירי כל השורף תבואתו של חבירו אינו מניח בן ליורשו
Rav Chisda said that whoever burns the produce of his neighbor doesn't leave a son to inherit him.

ואיהו קלייה לדיואב
And
Avshalom
burned Yoav's produce,

דכתיב ויאמר אל עבדיו ראו חלקת יואב אל ידי ולו שם שעורים לכו והציתוה באש ויציתו עבדי אבשלום את החלקה באש
As the verse says
"And
Avshalom
told his servants: 'See, Yoav's field is near mine, and he has barley there; go and set it on fire.' And Avshalom's servants set the field on fire."

 
 
 
:וכן לענין הטובה מרים וכו':
Discussed in Mishna And so too for the good. Miriam etc.

 
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
מי דמי התם חדא שעתא הכא שבעה יומי
Is
one rewarded measure for measure? Miriam waited
one hour,
while the Jewish people waited for her
for seven days!

The Gemara cites two answers:
אמר אביי אימא ולענין הטובה אינו כן
1.
Abaye
answered
that
the Mishna should be read
"But for the good it is not
exactly measure for measure, but more so".

The Gemara rejects this answer:
א"ל
=אמר ליה
רבא הא וכן לענין הטובה קתני
Rava said back that
this cannot be correct, for the Mishna
does
says "and so too
one gets rewarded measure for measure".

The Gemara Answers:
אלא אמר רבא הכי קתני
Rather, Rava explains the Mishna
a different way:

וכן לענין הטובה דבאותה מדה
2.
And so too for
a
good
deed, a person's reward
is similar
to his good deed,

ולעולם מדה טובה מרובה ממדת פורענות
But the good measure
i.e the reward
is always better than the bad measure
i.e the punishment.

 
 
 
ותתצב אחותו מרחוק
"And his sister stood from a distance."

 
The Gemara will discuss the verse "And his sister stationed herself at a distance, to learn what would befall him."
 
 
א"ר
=אמר רבי
יצחק פסוק זה כולו על שם שכינה נאמר
Rabbi Yitzchak says that every
word
in this verse
describes
the Divine presence:

ותתצב
"Stationed"
has a connection to the Divine presence:

דכתיב ויבא ה'
=השם
ויתיצב וגו'
Its connection to the divine presence is
similar to what is written, "And the Hashem came, and stood".

אחותו
The word
"His sister"
has a connection to the Divine presence:

דכתיב אמור לחכמה אחותי את
because it also describes the Divine presence. The verse
says, "Say to wisdom: 'You are my sister'".

מרחוק
The word
"at a distance"
has a connection to the Divine presence:

דכתיב מרחוק ה'
השם
נראה לי
as the verse says
"'From afar Hashem appeared to me."

לדעת
The word
"to learn"
has a connection to the Divine presence:

דכתיב כי אל דעות ה
As the verse writes
"For Hashem is a G - d of knowledge".

מה
The word
"What"
has a connection to the Divine presence:

דכתיב מה ה'
=השם
אלהיך שואל מעמך
As the verse says
"And now, Israel, what does Hashem your G - d require of you".

יעשה
The word
"would befall"
has a connection to the Divine presence:

דכתיב כי לא יעשה ה'
=השם
אלהים דבר
As
the verse said that
"For the G - d Hashem will do nothing".

לו
The word
"him"
has a connection to the Divine presence:

דכתי'
=דכתיב
ויקרא לו ה'
=השם
שלום:
"And
Gideon
called
it
'Hashem Shalom '".

 
 
 
The Gemara will now discuss the story of the Jews in Egypt:
ויקם מלך חדש וגו'
"Now there arose a new king over Egypt"

 
 
 
רב ושמואל
There is an argument between
Rav and Shmuel
about the interpretation of this verse:

חד אמר חדש ממש
One said that
this new king
was
truly
a new
king.

וחד אמר שנתחדשו גזירותיו
And the other
said that
it was the same Pharaoh, but he was called "a new king" since
he made new decrees.

 
 
 
מאן דאמר חדש ממש דכתיב חדש
The opinion
which
said that this new Pharaoh was a new king comes to this conclusion because the verse says
"
a
new
king arose".

ומאן דאמר שנתחדשו גזירותיו דלא כתיב וימת וימלוך
The other opinion argues,
since
the verse
doesn't say
the traditional quote
"
the old king
died
and a new king
ruled".

 
 
 
אשר לא ידע את יוסף
"Who did not know Yosef"

 
 
 
דהוה דמי כמאן דלא ידע ליה כלל
Pharaoh
pretended not to know
Yosef
at all.

 
 
 
ויאמר אל עמו הנה עם בני ישראל
"And he said unto his people: 'Behold, the people of the children of Israel ...'"

 
 
 
תנא הוא התחיל בעצה תחילה לפיכך לקה תחילה
A Braisa
taught that since
Pharaoh
started the evil advice, he was punished first.

The Gemara Asks:
הוא התחיל בעצה תחילה
What is the source
that
Pharaoh
started the evil plan?

The Gemara Answers:
דכתיב ויאמר אל עמו
The verse
says "and he spoke to his people".

לפיכך לקה תחילה כדכתיב ובכה ובעמך ובכל עבדיך
Therefore,
he was punished first,
as the verse
says "And the frogs shall come up both upon you, and upon your people, and upon all your servants.'"

 
 
 
הבה נתחכמה לו
"Come, let us deal wisely with him"

 
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
להם מיבעי ליה
The verse
should have said "with them"
(i.e. against the Jews)

א"ר
=אמר רבי
חמא ברבי חנינא באו ונחכם למושיען של ישראל
Rabbi Chama the son of Rabbi Chanina said
that the verse teaches that Pharaoh really meant
"Let us deal wisely with Him - the Savior of the Jews"
(i.e. Hashem)

 
The Egyptian thought up three methods:
 
 
במה נדונם
How
shall we murder the Jews so that Hashem will never be able to avenge their death?

נדונם באש
1. If we will kill the Jewish infants
through fire,
Hashem will still be able to punish us,

כתיב כי הנה ה'
=השם
באש יבא
For the verse
says "Behold, Hashem is coming through fire".

וכתיב כי באש ה'
=השם
נשפט וגו'
And
the verse
says "Hashem will judge through fire".

 
 
 
בחרב
2. If we will kill them
with the sword,
Hashem will be able to punish us,

כתיב ובחרבו את כל בשר
For the verse says
"And by His sword with all flesh".

 
 
 
אלא בואו ונדונם במים שכבר נשבע הקב"ה
=הקדוש ברוך הוא
שאינו מביא מבול לעולם
3.
Rather, let us
kill the Jewish infants
through water
i.e drowning
, as Hashem promised never to flood the world,

שנאמר כי מי נח זאת לי וגו'
As
the verse
says "For this is as the waters of Noach unto Me".

 
However, they made two mistakes:
 
 
והן אינן יודעין
What
the Egyptians
didn't realize is:

שעל כל העולם כולו אינו מביא אבל על אומה אחת הוא מביא
1.
That
while Hashem
will never flood the whole world, He may
flood
individual nations.

אי נמי הוא אינו מביא אבל הן באין ונופלין בתוכו
2. While Hashem
will never flood
the world
, they can fall into
the water themselves.

וכן הוא אומר ומצרים נסים לקראתו
And
so they did, as the verse says
"and the Egyptians ran into
the Red Sea."

 
 
 
והיינו דא"ר
=דאמר רבי
אלעזר
And that's what Rabbi Elazar said:

מאי דכתיב כי בדבר אשר זדו עליהם
What does
the verse
"for that they dealt proudly
"Zadu"
against them"
mean?

בקדירה שבישלו בה נתבשלו
In the pot which
the Egyptians
cooked, they were cooked.

The Gemara Asks:
מאי משמע דהאי זדו לישנא דקדירה הוא
What's
the source
that the word Zadu means a pot?

The Gemara Answers:
דכתיב ויזד יעקב נזיד
The verse
says "And Yaakov cooked
(VaYazad)
a pot"

 
 
 
א"ר
=אמר רבי
חייא בר אבא א"ר
=אמר רבי
סימאי שלשה היו באותה עצה
Rav Chiya bar Abba said in the name of Rabbi Simai that there were three present in the
anti-Jewish
council:

בלעם ואיוב ויתרו
Bilaam, Iyov and Yisro.

 
The Gemara will now state their ends:
 
 
בלעם שיעץ נהרג
1.
Bilaam, who gave
evil
council, was killed.

איוב ששתק נידון ביסורין
2.
Iyov, who was silent, was punished with suffering.

יתרו שברח זכו מבני בניו שישבו בלשכת הגזית
3.
Yisro, who
supported the Jews and had to
run
for his life from Pharaoh,
merited that his descendants sat in the "Chamber of Hewn Stone"
(i.e the Sanhedrin).

שנאמר ומשפחות סופרים יושבי יעבץ תרעתים שמעתים סוכתים המה הקנים הבאים מחמת אבי בית רכב
As
the verse
says "And the families of scribes that close
i.e. Learned from
dwelled in close
One of the Torah leaders of the generation
Yaavetz : the close
Who heard the Shofar blow at the giving of the Torah
Tirasites , the close
Who
listened
to their father's words
Shimasites , the close
They were called this because they lived in tents - Sukkos
Sucosites . These are the Kenites that came of Chammas , the father of the house of Rechav. "

וכתיב ובני קיני חתן משה וגו':
And
another verse
says "And the children of the Kenite , Moses' father-in-law "

 
So those families of Torah scholars were descendants of Yisro.
 
 
 
 
ונלחם בנו ועלה מן הארץ
"And the
Jewish people
will wage war with us and leave our land"

 
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
ועלינו מיבעי ליה
The Egyptians
should
have been concerned that the Jews will
"make
us
(i.e. the Egyptians)
leave our land."

 
The Egyptians should have been happy if the Jews would leave.
 
 
The Gemara Answers:
א"ר
=אמר רבי
אבא בר כהנא כאדם שמקלל את עצמו ותולה קללתו בחבירו
Rabbi Abba bar Rabbi Kahana said that
this quote is reminiscent of
person who
desires to
curse himself, but
to avoid actualizing it, he
close
As the Gemara frequently does when it wants to say something negative about Jews.
says it on another.

 
So the Egyptians were really concerned that the Jews would
expel them
.
 
 
 
וישימו עליו שרי מסים
"Therefore they set over him taskmasters"

 
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
עליהם מיבעי ליה
The verse
should have said
that the Egyptians placed taskmasters
over
them
- the Jews.

The Gemara Answers:
תנא דבי ר'
=רבי
אלעזר בר'
=ברבי
שמעון מלמד שהביאו מלבן ותלו לו לפרעה בצוארו
A Tanna from the academy of Rabbi Elazar the son of Rabbi Shimon taught that
the Egyptians
hung a brick on Pharaoh's neck,

 
So the taskmasters were truly over him - Pharaoh.
 
 
וכל אחד ואחד מישראל שאמר להם איסטניס אני
So if any Jew would
avoid work with the excuse
as he's too delicate
to work in the field,

אמרו לו כלום איסטניס אתה יותר מפרעה
The Egyptian officials
would ask him if
he's
more delicate than Pharaoh?

 
 
 
שרי מסים
"Taskmasters"

 
 
 
דבר שמשים (לבנים)
One who places
bricks.

 
 
 
למען ענותו בסבלותם
"To afflict them with their burdens"

 
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
ענותם מיבעי ליה
The verse
should have said
to afflict them in
their affliction,
not their toils:

The Gemara Answers:
למען ענותו לפרעה בסבלותם דישראל
Rather, the verse says that Hashem
would torture Pharaoh for the toils of the Jews.

 
 
 
ויבן ערי מסכנות לפרעה
"They built storage houses for Pharaoh"

 
 
 
רב ושמואל
There is an argument between
Rav and Shmuel
about the meaning of the word " Miskeinos ":

חד אמר שמסכנות את בעליהן
One said that
construction
endangered
the Egyptians, for they were drowned the the Red Sea as a punishment,

וח"א
=וחד אמר
שממסכנות את בעליהן
And one said that
construction
made
the Egyptians
poor,
for the Jews took all of Egypt's wealth as reparations.

דאמר מר כל העוסק בבנין מתמסכן
As Master said, all those who work in construction become poor.

 
 
 
את פיתום ואת רעמסס
" Pithom and Ramses"

 
 
 
רב ושמואל
There is an argument between
Rav and Shmuel
about the true name of the city:

חד אמר פיתום שמה
One said that
the city's real
name was Pithom ,

ולמה נקרא שמה רעמסס שראשון ראשון מתרוסס
But
was called Ramses since
the buildings
were flattened
( Mitrosses )
one by one.

וחד אמר רעמסס שמה
And the other said
that the city's
name was Ramses,

ולמה נקרא שמה פיתום שראשון ראשון פי תהום בולעו
But was also
called Pithom since
the buildings were
swallowed
( Pi - the mouth Tehom - the depth of the earth.)
up
by the earth
one by one.

 
 
 
וכאשר יענו אותו כן ירבה וכן יפרוץ
"But the more they afflicted them, the more he multiplied and the more he spread abroad".

 
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
כן רבו וכן פרצו מיבעי ליה
The verse
should have said "and so
they
multiplied and so
they
spread".

אמר ר"ל
=ריש לקיש
רוח הקדש מבשרתן כן ירבה וכן יפרוץ:
Reish Lakish said that
this verse was not part of the narrative, but a quote
from Hashem: "So they
shall
grow and so they
shall
spring forth."

 
 
 
ויקוצו מפני בני ישראל
"And they were disgusted because of the children of Israel."

 
 
 
מלמד שהיו דומין בעיניהם כקוצים
It teaches that
the Jews
appeared in
the eyes of the Egyptian's
eyes like thorns.

 
 
 
ויעבידו מצרים את בני ישראל
"And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigor."






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