Dedicate Daf 12a to:

דיקא נמי דכתיב הקניזי ש"מ
שמע מינא
This is also implied from
the verse which says
"The Kenizi "

Not the son of Kenaz , but a member of his household, as he was born to Chetzron.
עזובה זו מרים
Azuva is Miriam.

ולמה נקרא שמה עזובה
Why was
called Azuva?

שהכל עזבוה מתחילתה
no one wanted to marry her since she was ill.

gave birth
to Azuva - Miriam"

The Gemara Asks:
והלא מינסב הוה נסיב לה
But didn't

The Gemara Answers:
אמר רבי
יוחנן כל הנושא אשה לשם שמים מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו ילדה
Rabbi Yochanan says that whoever marries a woman for close
As this marriage was - Kalev married Miriam, despite her illness, because he knew she was righteous
Hashem's sake is considered to have given birth to her.


שהיו פניה דומין ליריעות
Her face was
like a sheet
due to her illness.

ואלה בניה
"And these were her children."

אל תקרי בניה אלא בוניה
These were not the names of
"her children", but of but "her builder"
- Kalev, for he was instrumental in her recovery.


שישר את עצמו
For Kalev
straightened himself
(Yashar) against the wicked advice of the spies.


ששיבב את יצרו
he controlled his
and didn't follow the spies

"And Ardon "

שרדה את יצרו
Since Kalev
( Radah )
(which incited him to follow the spies).

ואיכא דאמרי על שהיו פניה דומין לורד
Some say
According to an implication from the Mesoras HaShas
Kalev was called Ardon
since his face was like a rose

ולאשחור אבי תקוע היו שתי נשים חלאה ונערה
And Ashchor , the father of Takua , had two wives - Chalah and Naarah .

אשחור זה כלב
Ashchor is Kalev.

The Gemara Asks:
ולמה נקרא שמו אשחור
Why was he called Ashchor?

The Gemara Answers:
שהושחרו פניו בתעניות
Because he darkened his face through fasting
(to avoid falling into the plot of the spies.)

"The father of"

שנעשה לה כאב
He became to
like a father,
as he worked to cure her.


שתקע את לבו לאביו שבשמים
Since he wedged his heart to his Father in Heaven
(and didn't follow the spies).

היו שתי נשים
"He had two wives"

נעשה מרים כשתי נשים
Miriam became
to Kalev
like two wives:

חלאה ונערה
" Chalah and Naarah "

לא חלאה ונערה הואי אלא בתחילה חלאה ולבסוף נערה
They were not Chalah and Na'arah . Rather, Miriam was first sickly
( Choleh )
and then she became a young maiden
( Na'arah ).

ובני חלאה צרת וצהר ואתנן
"The sons of Chalah were Tzaras , Tzohar and Osnan ".

The Gemara interprets that these three were not people but were descriptions of Miriam ( Chalah ):
צרת שנעשית צרה לחברותיה
"Tzaras" -
became a rival to her friends.

Her friends would be jealous of her beauty.
צהר שהיו פניה דומין כצהרים
"Tzohar" -
like the midday sun.

אתנן שכל הרואה אותה מוליך אתנן לאשתו
"Osnan" -
whoever saw her would send a gift to their wives.

ויצו פרעה לכל עמו
"And Pharaoh commanded his whole nation."

אמר רבי
יוסי בר'
בן רבי
חנינא אף על עמו גזר
Rabbi Yossi ben Rabbi Chanina said that Pharaoh decreed
death on
his whole nation.

On the day Moshe was born, Pharaoh's astrologers warned Pharaoh that while they know that the redeemer of the Jews is being born, they're not sure to which nation he belongs. Therefore, to play it safe, Pharaoh had all children born on that day, Jewish or not, killed.
ואמר ר"י
רבי יוסי
בן רבי
חנינא שלש גזירות גזר
Rabbi Yossi the son of Rabbi Chanina said that
issued three decrees:

בתחילה אם בן הוא והמתן אותו
"If he is a boy,
kill him"
- relying on the midwives.

ולבסוף כל הבן הילוד היאורה תשליכוהו
2. When that didn't work, Pharaoh decreed that
"Any boy, through into the river" -
appointing his own policemen.

ולבסוף אף על עמו גזר
3. When even that didn't work, and Moshe was born despite all preventive measures,
he decreed against his own nation
- killing everyone.

וילך איש מבית לוי
"And a man from the house of Levi went."

The Gemara Asks:
להיכן הלך
To where did he go?

The Gemara Answers:
אמר רב יהודה בר זבינא שהלך בעצת בתו
Rav Yehuda bar Zvina said that he went
to follow
his daughter's advice.

The Gemara will now discuss the story of how Moshe was born:
A Braisa

עמרם גדול הדור היה
Amram was the leader of the generation,

כיון (שראה שאמר) פרעה הרשע כל הבן הילוד היאורה תשליכוהו
When Pharaoh
decreed that
"all boys shall be sent to the river"

אמר לשוא אנו עמלין
He said that "we are toiling for nothing"
(as any children we'll have will be killed).

עמד וגירש את אשתו
he arose and divorced his wife.

עמדו כולן וגירשו את נשותיהן
When he divorced his wife,
divorced their wives.

אמרה לו בתו
His daughter
told him:

אבא קשה גזירתך יותר משל פרעה
"Your decree is worse than Pharaoh's!"

שפרעה לא גזר אלא על הזכרים ואתה גזרת על הזכרים ועל הנקיבות
For Pharaoh only decreed
on the boys, while your decree is on both boys and girls
by preventing them from being born.

פרעה לא גזר אלא בעוה"ז
בעולם הזה
ואתה בעוה"ז
בעולם הזה
ולעולם הבא
Pharaoh's decree only
affects the children in
"this world"
(for they'll come back during the Resurrection)
, while your decree
denies these unborn children
both "this world" and "the World to Come".

פרעה הרשע ספק מתקיימת גזירתו ספק אינה מתקיימת
there is a doubt if Pharaoh's decree will stay in affect,

אתה צדיק בודאי שגזירתך מתקיימת
You are righteous, so your decree will surely stand.

שנאמר ותגזר אומר ויקם לך
the verse
says, "And you will decree, and it will established for you".

עמד והחזיר את אשתו
So Amram
remarried his wife.

עמדו כולן והחזירו את נשותיהן
Once Amram, the leader of the generation, remarried his wife, everyone
remarried their wives.

"And he took".

ויחזור מיבעי ליה
The verse
should have said "and he returned
his wife."

אמר רבי
יהודה בר זבינא שעשה לו מעשה ליקוחין
Rabbi Yehuda bar Zvina said
that the verse says that Amram
made an action of taking
(i.e marriage) to Yocheved.

הושיבה באפריון ואהרן ומרים מרקדין לפניה
in an Litter, and Aharon and Miriam danced in front of her.

ומלאכי השרת אמרו אם הבנים שמחה
The supernal angels said "The mother of children is happy".

את בת לוי
"The daughter of Levi".

The Gemara Asks:
אפשר בת מאה ושלשים שנה הויא וקרי לה בת
Can a hundred and thirty year old be called a "daughter"?

דאמר רבי
חמא בר'
בן רבי
חנינא זו יוכבד שהורתה בדרך ולידתה בין החומות
As Rabbi Chama the son of Rabbi Chanina said
this is Yocheved who was conceived on the way
to Egypt
but her birth was between the

The Torah says that seventy souls descended to Egypt, but only lists sixty nine.
Rabbi Chama said that the seventieth was Yocheved, who was born just as they entered.
שנאמר אשר ילדה אותה ללוי במצרים
the verse says
"Who gave birth to Levi in Egypt",

לידתה במצרים ואין הורתה במצרים
Her birth was in Egypt but her conception was not in Egypt.

Moshe was eighty years old during the Exodus, and the Jews spend two hundred and ten years in Egypt, so his mother had to be around a hundred and thirty at the time of his birth.
She was an old woman then, not a little girl!
The Gemara Answers:
דאמר רבי
יהודה שנולדו בה סימני נערות
Rabbi Yehuda answered
she regained her signs of youth.

תהר האשה ותלד בן
"And the woman was pregnant and gave birth".

The Gemara Asks:
והא הות מיעברא ביה תלתא ירחי מעיקרא
But she was already pregnant for three months?

The Gemara Answers:
דאמר רבי
יהודה בר זבינא מקיש לידתה להורתה
Rabbi Yehuda bar Zvina said
that the verse
birth to
his conception,

מה הורתה שלא בצער אף לידתה שלא בצער
Just as
pregnancy is without pain, so
was her
birth without pain.

מכאן לנשים צדקניות שלא היו בפיתקה של חוה
This is the source that righteous women were not included in the curse of Chavah
- the pain of childbirth).

ותרא אותו כי טוב הוא
"And he saw that he was good"

A Braisa
was taught:

The Braisa will mention five explanations how Moshe was good:
רבי מאיר
אומר טוב שמו
Rabbi Meir said that
name was Tov
(lit. good).

יהודה אומר טוביה שמו
Rabbi Yehuda said that his name was Tuvya
(lit. good of Hashem).

רבי נחמיה אומר הגון לנביאות
Rabbi Nechemia said that he
will be
fit for prophecy.

אחרים אומרים נולד כשהוא מהול
"Others" say that he was born circumcised.

וחכמים אומרים בשעה שנולד משה נתמלא הבית כולו אור
The Sages said that when Moshe was born, the house was filled with light,

כתיב הכא ותרא אותו כי טוב הוא
As one verse says
"And he saw that he is good,"

וכתיב התם וירא אלהים את האור כי טוב
and another verse says
"And Hashem saw the light is good".

The Gezeira Shava links the word "good" of light to the "good" of Moshe.
ותצפנהו שלשה ירחים
"And she hid him three months".

דלא מנו מצרים אלא משעה דאהדרה
For the Egyptians
expected children only
nine months after

והיא הות מיעברא ביה תלתא ירחי מעיקרא
was already pregnant for three months
at that point.

ולא יכלה עוד הצפינו
So after the three months, Yocheved
was no longer able to hide

The Gemara Asks:
אמאי תצפניה ותיזיל
Why was
Yocheved no longer able to

The Gemara Answers:
אלא כל היכא דהוו שמעי מצראי דמתיליד ינוקא ממטו ינוקא התם כי היכי דלישמעינהו ומעוי (בהדיהו)
Whenever the Egyptians heard that a Jewish child was born, they would bring another child there so
the Jewish child would hear
the Egyptian child and cry.

דכתיב אחזו לנו שועלים שועלים קטנים וגו'
the verse says
"seized upon us, foxes, little foxes,
ravagers of vineyards, and our vineyards were yet in unripe bloom."

ותקח לו תבת גומא
"And she made for him a box from wicker"

The Gemara Asks:
מאי שנא גומא
Why did
the boat
from wicker?

The Gemara gives two reasons:
דאמר רבי
אלעזר מוכן לצדיקים שממונם חביב עליהן יותר מגופן
Rabbi Elazar said that from here
is derived
that the money of the righteous is more precious than themselves.

The Gemara Asks:
וכל כך למה
And why
do they value money so much?

The Gemara Answers:
לפי שאין פושטין ידיהן בגזל
Since they do not steal,
they have very little of it.

The second reason Moshe's boat was made from wicker:
רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר דבר רך
Rabbi Shmuel bar Nachmeni
wanted to make it out of a soft material,

שיכול לעמוד בפני דבר רך ובפני דבר קשה
So it would be able to
withstand an accident
with hard materials
(such as stones)
and soft materials.

ותחמרה בחמר ובזפת
"And she coated it with clay and tar"

תנא חמר מבפנים וזפת מבחוץ
A Braisa
taught that the clay was on the inside and the tar on the outside,

Tosfos points out that both were on the inside of the box (the outside had to camouflage into the surrounding reeds), with the clay covering the tar.
כדי שלא יריח אותו צדיק ריח רע
So that Moshe would not have to smell the foul odor
of tar.

ותשם בה את הילד ותשם בסוף
"And she placed the child in it, and she placed it in the marsh"

There are two opinions regarding where Moshe was placed:
רבי אלעזר אומר ים סוף
Rabbi Elazar said that
Moshe was placed
in the Red Sea.

רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר
Rabbi Shmuel bar Nachmeni said

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