Dedicate Daf 22a to:

שקרא ושנה ולא שימש תלמידי חכמים:
7. One
who read
, learned
Mishnas, but did not
serve Torah scholars
to actually know why and how to apply the law.

As the Gemara will explain the faults of one who didn't learn in depth:
אתמר קרא ושנה ולא שימש ת"ח
It was said
about those who
, learned
, but did not
apprentice with
Torah scholars:

ר' אלעזר אומר הרי זה עם הארץ
Rabbi Elazar said
such a person is an ignoramus
(who is suspected of being excessively lenient with tithing and purity laws).

ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר הרי זה בור
Rabbi Shmuel bar Nachmani said
that such a person
is a boor
(who is even worse than an ignoramus).

ר' ינאי אומר ה"ז כותי
Rabbi Yannai said
that such a person is like a
(who do not care about the Sages' teachings, and one may not eat of his bread or wine).

רב אחא בר יעקב אומר הרי זה מגוש
Rav Acha bar Yaakov said
that such a person is like
a magician
(who performs through sleigh of hand, just as this person "pretends" to know Torah).

אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מסתברא כרב אחא בר יעקב
Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak said that Rav Acha Bar Yaakov's opinion makes
the most

דאמרי אינשי רטין מגושא ולא ידע מאי אמר תני תנא ולא ידע מאי אמר
As people say that
just as
a magician talks but doesn't know what he says,
this person (who never learned Torah in depth)
teaches but doesn't know what he says.

The Rabbis taught
in a Braisa

איזהו ע"ה
Who is
an ignoramus?

As unlearned people were not careful in separating Maaser and staying ritually pure, the Rabbis decreed that their foods must be re-tithed and are considered perpetually impure.
The Gemara will cite five opinions:
כל שאינו קורא ק"ש שחרית וערבית בברכותיה דברי ר' מאיר
Rabbi Meir said that
an ignoramus is one who
doesn't read Shema morning and night with its blessings.

וחכ"א כל שאינו מניח תפילין
The Sages said that
an ignoramus is one who
doesn't lay Tefillin.

בן עזאי אומר כל שאין לו ציצית בבגדו
Ben Azzai says that
an ignoramus is one who
doesn't place Tzitzis on his garments.

ר' יונתן בן יוסף אמר כל שיש לו בנים ואינו מגדלן ללמוד תורה
Rabbi Yonasan ben Yosef said that
an ignoramus is one who
has sons but doesn't raise them to study Torah.

אחרים אומרים אפילו קורא ושונה ולא שימש ת"ח זהו ע"ה
"Others" said even if one reads
, learns
Mishna, but
doesn't serve Torah scholars, he is
an ignoramus.

קרא ולא שנה הרי זה בור
One who reads
but does not learn is a boor
(worse than an ignoramus. )

לא קרא ולא שנה עליו הכתוב אומר וזרעתי את בית ישראל ואת בית יהודה זרע אדם וזרע בהמה:
About one who neither reads
nor learns
, the verse says, "I will sow the house of Israel and the house of Yehuda with the seed of man, and with the seed of beast."

ירא את ה' בני ומלך ועם שונים אל תתערב
"My son, fear Hashem and the king, And meddle not with those that are given to change".

What does "those that are given to change" mean?
The Gemara answers:
אמר רבי יצחק אלו ששונים הלכות
Rabbi Yitzchak said
that the verse teaches one to stay away from those
who teach Halachas
(Mishnas) and did not apprentice with Torah scholars, as they ignoramuses.

Shonim (change) can be translated as "Teaching".
The Gemara responds:
It's obvious!

How else would one explain the verse?
The Gemara explains that it can be an instruction to stay away from people who "repeat":
מהו דתימא שונין בחטא וכדרב הונא
No, for the verse could have been interpreted as commanding one to stay away from those who
sins, following Rav Huna
's teaching

דאמר רב הונא כיון שעבר אדם עבירה ושנה בה הותרה לו קמ"ל
As Rav Huna said
that when
someone sins and repeats
that sin, he convinces himself that his deed
was permissible.

But the true interpretation was said .
תנא התנאים מבלי עולם
A Braisa teaches
that those who teach Mishna
destroy the world.

The Gemara asks:
מבלי עולם ס"ד
Do they really
destroy the world?
What harm do they do to others?

The Gemara answers:
אמר רבינא שמורין הלכה מתוך משנתן
Ravina said
that those
who issue Halachic rulings based on their
superficial knowledge of Mishna destroy the world, for now others will follow his incorrect rulings.

תניא נמי הכי
A Braisa also taught:

א"ר יהושע וכי מבלי עולם הן והלא מיישבי עולם הן
Rabbi Yehoshua
asked, do those those who teach Mishnas
really destroy the world? Don't they establish the world?

שנאמר הליכות עולם לו
As the verse
says "The ways of the world are his."

And, as the Gemara explains elsewhere, one should read the word " Halichos " (ways) as "Halachas" (laws), so the verse says "The world belongs to one who learns Halacha (Which was codified then in the Mishna)". This implies that learning Mishna is a good thing.
The Gemara answers:
אלא שמורין הלכה מתוך משנתן:
the destroyers are not those who
Mishna but those
who issue
based on Mishna.

:אשה פרושה וכו':
An ascetic woman

ת"ר בתולה צליינית ואלמנה שובבית וקטן שלא כלו לו חדשיו הרי אלו מבלי עולם
The Sages taught
a praying maiden, a neighborly widow, and a "child who didn't finish his months" destroy the world.

Is it true
that these people destroy the world?

והאמר רבי יוחנן למדנו יראת חטא מבתולה וקיבול שכר מאלמנה
But didn't Rabbi Yochanan say that
one can
learn fear of sin from a maiden and
trust in receiving
reward from a widow?

As the Gemara will now explain:
יראת חטא מבתולה
One can learn
fear of sin from a maiden
from the following incident:

דר' יוחנן שמעה לההיא בתולה דנפלה אאפה וקאמרה
Rabbi Yochanan
heard that maiden would fall on her face and say:

רבש"ע בראת גן עדן ובראת גיהנם בראת צדיקים ובראת רשעים
"Master of the Universe! You created the Garden of Eden, and You created Gehenom. You created the righteous, and You created the wicked,

יהי רצון מלפניך שלא יכשלו בי בני אדם
May it be Your will that men shouldn't stumble
into sin
through me!"

So a praying maiden could be holy, not evil!
The Maharsha answers that this case is different, since she didn't constantly pray, while those who "destroy the world" were constantly showing off their righteousness.
קיבול שכר מאלמנה
One can learn trust in receiving
reward from
the following incident:

דההיא אלמנה דהואי בי כנישתא בשיבבותה כל יומא הות אתיא ומצלה בי מדרשיה דר' יוחנן
There was a widow who had a synagogue in her neighborhood,
every day she would come and pray in the synagogue of Rabbi Yochanan.

אמר לה
Rav Yochanan
told her:

"My daughter!

לא בית הכנסת בשיבבותך
Is there not a synagogue in your
Why do you walk here?

אמרה ליה

רבי ולא שכר פסיעות יש לי
"Rabbi, is there not reward for
all the extra
I took to walk here?

So again, old widows could be holy, not evil!
So the Gemara answers that the Braisa (which said that a widow destroys the world) refers to a specific incident:
כי קאמר כגון יוחני בת רטיבי
To what was
the Braisa
To someone who is
like Yochni bas Retivi
(the witch)

She would enchant pregnant women, preventing them from being able to give birth. As their pain increased, she would come "to pray for them" while secretly undoing her magic. All the while she would pretend to be a kind and righteous neighbor.
מאי קטן שלא כלו לו חדשיו
To what
does the Braisa mean when it says
"a child who didn't finish his months"?

The Gemara will cite two answers:
הכא תרגימו זה ת"ח המבעט ברבותיו
A Torah scholar who rebels against his teachers.

רבי אבא אמר זה תלמיד שלא הגיע להוראה ומורה
Rabbi Abba said
that "a child who didn't finish his months" is
a student who rules despite not reaching
the requisite

דא"ר אבהו אמר רב הונא אמר רב
As Rabbi Avahu said in the name of Rav Huna in the name of Rav,

מאי דכתיב כי רבים חללים הפילה ועצומים כל הרוגיה
How should the verse
"For she has cast down many wounded; a mighty host are all her slain"
be interpreted?

כי רבים חללים הפילה זה ת"ח שלא הגיע להוראה ומורה
"For she has cast down many wounded" refers to a Torah scholar who
doesn't have the ability
issue Halachic
rulings, but does so,

ועצומים כל הרוגיה זה ת"ח שהגיע להוראה ואינו מורה
"A mighty host are all her slain"
refers to a
Torah scholar who is capable of ruling but doesn't do so.

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