Dedicate Daf 23a to:

האומרת טמאה אני לך
1. The Mincha of a Sotah
who admits
that she was immoral.

ושבאו לה עדים שהיא טמאה
2. The Mincha of a Sotah who had
testify that she was immoral,

והאומרת איני שותה
3. The Mincha of a Sotah who refuses to
the Sotah waters,

ושבעלה אינו רוצה להשקותה
4. The Mincha of a Sotah whose
refuses to make her

ושבעלה בא עליה בדרך
5. The Mincha of a Sotah whose
husband was intimate
with her
on the way
to Yerushalayim (after her seclusion).

וכל הנשואות לכהנים מנחותיהן נשרפות
Discussed in Gemara 6. The Mincha of a Sotah who
is married to a Kohen.

בת ישראל שנשאת לכהן מנחתה נשרפת
7. The Mincha of a Sotah who was born to an
Israelite but married a Kohen,

וכהנת שנשאת לישראל מנחתה נאכלת
the Mincha
of a Sotah who married
an Israelite is eaten, even if she was born to a Kohen.

The Mishna asks:
מה בין כהן לכהנת
What is the difference between a male Kohen and a female Kohen?

The Mishna will cite four differences:
מנחת כהנת נאכלת ומנחת כהן אינה נאכלת
The Mincha of a female Kohen is eaten,
the Mincha of a male Kohen is not eaten.

כהנת מתחללת וכהן אין מתחלל
Discussed in Gemara
2. The daughter of a
Kohen can become a Chalalah, but a Kohen cannot become a Chalal.

If the daughter of a Kohen was divorced, close
A Kohen is forbidden to marry
she may no longer marry a Kohen. If she illegally married one, she becomes a Chalalah and:
1. May not marry a Kohen,
2. She is no longer considered a Kohen, and may never again eat Terumah.
On the other hand, a male Kohen cannot "stop being a Kohen". Even if he marries someone he may not, his wife becomes a Chalalah but he doesn't.
כהנת מטמאה למתים ואין כהן מטמא למתים
Discussed in Gemara
3. The daughter of
a Kohen is permitted to become Tamei from a corpse, but a male Kohen may not.

כהן אוכל בקדשי קדשים ואין כהנת אוכלת בקדשי קדשים
Discussed in Gemara
A male Kohen may eat Kodshei Kodshim , but
the daughter of a
Kohen may not eat Kodshei Kodshim .

On that topic, the Mishna will list a few Halachic differences between men and women:
The Mishna asks:
מה בין איש לאשה
What is the
difference between males and females?

The Mishna lists eight answers:
האיש פורע ופורם ואין האשה פורעת ופורמת
Discussed in Gemara
A man rips his garments
upon getting Tzaraas,
but a woman does not,

האיש מדיר את בנו בנזיר ואין האשה מדרת בנה בנזיר
Discussed in Gemara
A man can make his son into a Nazirite, but a woman cannot.

האיש מגלח על נזירות אביו ואין האשה מגלחת על נזירות אביה
Discussed in Gemara
3. If
a man
and his father both became Nazirites, and the father designated his sacrifices and passed away, the son
offer those animals as his own sacrifice, but a daughter
may not.

האיש מקדש את בתו ואין האשה מקדשת את בתה
Discussed in Gemara
4. According to Biblical Law, only
a man can marry off his daughter
against her will,
but a woman cannot.

האיש מוכר את בתו ואין האשה מוכרת את בתה
Discussed in Gemara
A man can sell his daughter
as a servant,
but a woman cannot.

האיש נסקל ערום ואין האשה נסקלת ערומה
Discussed in Gemara
A man is stoned naked, but a woman is not.

האיש נתלה ואין האשה נתלית
Discussed in Gemara
7. After stoning, a man is
hung, but a woman is not.

האיש נמכר בגניבתו ואין האשה נמכרת בגניבתה:
Discussed in Gemara
8. If
A man
stole and cannot pay back, he
is sold into slavery, but a woman is not.

תנו רבנן
Discussed in Mishna The Rabbis taught
in a Braisa:

כל הנשואות לכהונה מנחותיהן נשרפות
A woman
who is married to a Kohen has her Minchas burned
rather than eaten,

The Braisa explains:
כיצד כהנת לויה וישראלית שנשאת לכהן אין מנחתה נאכלת מפני שיש לו חלק בה
The Minchas brought by the
daughter of a Kohen, Levi, or
a regular
Israelite who married a Kohen are not eaten, as
there is a Kohen (husband)
owns part of it,

And the verse says that all Minchas owned by a Kohen must be burned.
But, on the other hand,
ואינה עולה כליל מפני שיש לה חלק בה
The offerings may
completely burned, since
there wife (a non - Kohen) also
owns a part of it.

So the Braisa concludes that:
אלא הקומץ קרב בעצמו והשירים קריבין בעצמן
The Kometz is burned on its own, and
then the the rest of the Mincha
is burned on its own.

The Gemara Asks:
איקרי כאן כל שהוא ממנו לאישים הרי הוא בבל תקטירו
But the verse says "No meal offering that you offer to Hashem shall be made with leaven, for no leaven or honey may be turned
of it into smoke as an offering by fire to Hashem".
The word
"of it"
teaches that after the proper portion was offered, the rest may not be burned.

The verse could have left out the word "of it", so the Gemara interprets that there is another commandment here - that one may not burn any part of the offering after another part was offered (The Olah being the only exception).
This, contradicts the Mishna's rule that the Kohen's wife's Mincha is burned - once the Kometz was burned, we should be forbidden to burn other part of the Mincha.
The Gemara Answers:
אמר יהודה בריה דר"ש
דרבי שמעון
בן פזי דמסיק להו לשום עצים כר"א
כרבי אלעזר
Rabbi Yehuda said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi that
the author of this Mishna
follows the
opinion of Rabbi Elazar,
and considers the remains
as firewood.

As a Braisa

ר"א אומר לריח ניחוח אי אתה מעלה אבל אתה מעליהו לשום עצים
Rabbi Elazar said
that the Kohen's part (what he must eat) may not be burned
"for a pleasant aroma"
(as a sacrifice),
but one may burn it as firewood.

So the Kohen's wife' Mincha's Kometz is offered as a sacrifice, while the remainders are just burned as firewood.
The Gemara Asks:
הניחא לר"א דאית ליה האי סברא
This works for
Rabbi Elazar,
who holds that one may burn remainders as firewood.

אלא לרבנן דלית להו האי סברא מא"ל
how do
the Sages
permit offering the Mincha partially owned by a Kohen,
as they do not agree with
Rabbi Elazar's opinion?

The Gemara Answers:
דעבדי להו כר"א בר"ש
They follow the opinion of Rabbi Elazar ben Rabbi Shimon:

the following Braisa

רבי אלעזר בר"ש אומר הקומץ קרב בעצמו והשירים מתפזרים על בית הדשן
Rabbi Elazar ben Rabbi Shimon said
the Kometz is
and the rest
of the Mincha
is spread on the pile of ashes,

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