Dedicate Daf 2b to:



ממשמע שנאמר לא יקום עד באיש איני יודע שהוא אחד
Simply
saying "A single witness shall not rise",
would
imply that
the court doesn't believe a
single
witness.

מה ת"ל
=תלמוד לומר
אחד
Why does the verse add the word
"one"?

זה בנה אב כל מקום שנאמר עד הרי כאן שנים עד שיפרוט לך הכתוב אחד
To teach
a general rule:
the word
"witness", automatically means two
witnesses
, unless the verse explicitly modifies
the word "witness" with the
word "one."

 
So the verse should read:
 
"And a man lie with her a lying of seed, and it be hid from the eyes of her husband, and she had secreted herself , and she be defiled, and there be no
two
witness
es
to her, and she had not been seized (i.e., forced)."
 
 
ואמר רחמנא תרי לית בה אלא חד
Therefore, when the verse says about the Sotah
that there weren't witnesses
of her immorality, it really says that there were no
two
witnesses of her immorality. But there was a
single
witness.

והיא לא נתפשה אסורה
And nevertheless, the verse continues to say that "if
she was not forced
to have relations", which implies that
she
becomes
forbidden
to stay married to her husband, even if the only evidence to her immorality is a single witness.

 
 
This is the source that the testimony of a single witness is believed against one who was warned and secluded. The Gemara will now discuss why the derivation (on the ) was necessary, as the Gemara will attempt to prove that law from the verse itself.
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
אלא טעמא דכתיב לא יקום עד אחד באיש
Is the only source that the Sotah had only one witness
the verse, "A witness shall not rise against a man"?

הא לאו הכי הוה אמינא עד דסוטה חד הוא
But if not
for that verse
, one would have thought that
the verse "there was no witness in her" is to be taken literally as referring to
a single witness?

ואי אפילו חד ליכא אלא במאי מיתסרא
If there were no witnesses
of the Sotah's immorality
, how would she become forbidden?

The Gemara Answers:
איצטריך סד"א
=סלקא דעתך אמינא
עד אין בה אין נאמן בה
The verse which says "there was
no
witness to
her
" means
"is not believed about her".

 
So the verse could have been read as "And a man lie with her a lying of seed, and it be hid from the eyes of her husband, and she had secreted herself, and she be defiled, and a
single
witness to it
is not believed
, and she had not been seized (i.e., forced)."
 
 
So perhaps the verse is really saying that a single witness is not believed?
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
אין נאמן בה ואלא מאי בעי עד דאיכא תרי
Is it possible to have interpreted the verse as teaching that a single witness
it is not believed? So how many
witnesses of immorality
are necessary
for the court to believe the report?
Two?

לישתוק קרא מיניה דאתיא דבר דבר מממון ואנא ידענא מידי דהוה אכל עדיות שבתורה
But the verse would not teach that there must be two witnesses for the court to believe testimony about immorality for
one can derive that from
the Gezeira Shava
of the word "matter"
in the context
of financial law
where the Torah explicitly requires two witnesses with the word
"matter"
in the context of immorality. This Gezeira Shava teaches
that
testimony of immorality (like
all testimony
in the Torah)
requires two witnesses.

The Gemara Answers:
איצטריך
The derivation
is necessary:

סד"א
=סלקא דעתך אמינא
סוטה שאני דרגלים לדבר שהרי קינא לה ונסתרה ליתהימן בה עד אחד
One could have thought that immorality
following a warning is different,
since
if the husband
warned
his wife not to be secluded with some other man
and
there were witnesses that she was secluded,
it's not far-fetched
to say that there was also immorality (so a single witness would be believed then.)

 
 
So perhaps one can't use the to derive that a woman who was warned and secluded requires two witnesses.
 
Therefore, perhaps the verse means, (like we assumed ): "And a man lie with her a lying of seed, and it be hid from the eyes of her husband, and she had secreted herself, and she be defiled, and a
single
witness to it
is not believed
, and she had not been seized (i.e., forced)".
 
Therefore, the required a Gezeira Shava to derive that whenever the Torah uses the word "witness", it always means two witnesses.
 
 
Therefore, the true reading of the verse is "And a man lie with her a lying of seed, and it be hid from the eyes of her husband, and she had secreted herself , and she be defiled, and there be no
two
witness
es
to her, and she had not been seized
i.e., forced
"
 
 
The Gemara returns back to a assumption.
 
The Gemara reads the verse as "And a man lie with her a lying of seed, and it be hid from the eyes of her husband, and she had secreted herself, and she be defiled, and a
single
witness to it
is not believed
, and she had not been seized
i.e., forced
".
 
The Gemara asks that the first close
"And a man lie with her a lying of seed, and it be hid from the eyes of her husband, and she had secreted herself, and she be defiled, and a
single
witness to it
is not believed
"
part of the verse "and a
single
witness to it
is not believed
" discusses how the suspected wife could be presumed innocent, while the second part of the verse "and she had not been seized
i.e., forced
" gives a reason to prosecute her.
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
ומי מצית אמרת דאין נאמן בה ושריא
But could one think
that the verse is teaching that a single witness
is not believed
and the wife remains
permitted
to her husband
?

והא מדכתיב והיא לא נתפשה מכלל דאסורה
The verse continues with "And if she wasn't forced...",
which implies that
she is forbidden
to stay married.

The Gemara Answers:
איצטריך סד"א
=סלקא דעתך אמינא
אין נאמן בה עד דאיכא תרי ובתרי נמי הינסתרה ליתהימן בה עדא דלא נתפשה קמ"ל
קא משמע לן
The original derivation
is still necessary as one could have thought that
the verse teaches that a single witness
is not believed
(because the court only believes the testimony of
two witnesses
)
, and even
if there are two witnesses
, the wife
is permitted to stay married to her husband
if she wasn't forced
into the illicit relation.

 
 
 
 
:רבי יהושע אומר מקנא לה על פי שנים וכו':
Discussed in Mishna - Rabbi Yehoshua says that one has to warn (his wife) in front of two witnesses.

 
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
מ"ט
=מאי טעמא
דרבי יהושע
What's Rabbi Yehoshua's reasoning?

The Gemara Answers:
אמר קרא בה
The verse says
"There are no (two) witnesses about
her"
- the one who committed immorality".

בה ולא בקינוי בה ולא בסתירה
Which implies that a single witness is believed to testify that
"she"
was immoral, but a warning in front of a single witness is
not
considered a
warning,
and while a single witness is believed to testify that
"she"
was immoral, seclusion in front of a single witness is
not
considered
seclusion.

 
 
 
ורבי אליעזר אומר בה ולא בקינוי
But Rabbi Eliezer said
that while a single witness is believed to testify that
"she"
was immoral, a warning in front of a single witness is
not
considered
a warning.

The Gemara Asks:
ואימא בה ולא בסתירה
But
why doesn't Rabbi Eliezer consider that the word
"in her" excludes
a single witness's testimony of seclusion
.

The Gemara Answers:
סתירה איתקש לטומאה דכתיב ונסתרה והיא נטמאה
Seclusion has a Hekesh to
immorality
, as
the verse
says "And she was secluded and became impure".

The Gemara Asks:
קינוי נמי איתקש לטומאה דכתיב וקנא את אשתו והיא נטמאה
But the warning also has a Hekesh to
immorality
, as
the verse
says "And he warned his wife and she became impure".

The Gemara Answers:
הא מיעט רחמנא בה
Rabbi Eliezer excludes that derivation
with the word "In her"
as is mentioned .

The Gemara Asks:
ומה ראית מסתברא סתירה עדיפא שכן אוסרתה כטומאה
Why does Rabbi Eliezer
find seclusion to be
closer to impurity?
Is it because
illicit seclusion alone
one to stay married to her husband
as much as definite
impurity?

אדרבה קינוי עדיף שכן עיקר גרם לה
One can say
the opposite, the warning
is closer to impurity
for
it's the warning
which leads to
the seclusion forbidding her.

 
As seclusion only forbids after a warning.
 
 
The Gemara Answers:
אי לאו סתירה קינוי מי איכא
If not for the seclusion, what's the purpose of the warning?

The Gemara Asks:
ואי לאו קינוי סתירה מאי אהני
But if not for the warning, seclusion does not affect
the marriage.

The Gemara Answers:
אפ"ה
=אפילו הכי
סתירה עדיפא דאתחלתא דטומאה היא
Nonetheless,
Rabbi Eliezer reasons
that the seclusion is
closer to impurity
, as
adultery
begins with seclusion.

 
So Rabbi Eliezer would rather use the Hekesh (and thereby believing a single witness) for the seclusion rather than the warning.
 
 
 
 
מתני'
=מתניתן
דלא כי האי תנא
This Mishna does not agree with the following Tanna:

 
As Rabbi Yossi ben Rabbi Yehuda holds the exact opposite of Rabbi Eliezer's opinion in the Mishna.
 
 
דתניא רבי יוסי ברבי יהודה אומר משום ר'
=רבי
אליעזר
For a Braisa was
taught where Rabbi Yossi ben Rabbi Yehuda said in the name of Rabbi Eliezer:

המקנא לאשתו מקנא ע"פ
=על פי
עד אחד או ע"פ
=על פי
עצמו ומשקה לה על פי שנים
One
may
warn his wife in front of one witness or even by himself, but
to make his wife
drink
the Bitter waters, the seclusion
must be in front of
two witnesses.

השיבו חכמים לדברי רבי יוסי ברבי יהודה אין לדבר סוף
The Sages answered Rabbi Yossi the son of Rabbi Yehuda that
according to him
, there is no end to the matter.

The Gemara Asks:
מ"ט
=מאי טעמא
דר'
=דרבי
יוסי ברבי יהודה
What is Rabbi Yossi bar Rabbi Yehuda's reasoning?

The Gemara Answers:
אמר קרא בה ולא בסתירה
The verse says
a single witness is believed to testify that
"she"
was immoral, implying that seclusion in front of a single witness is
not
considered
seclusion.

The Gemara Asks:
ואימא בה ולא בקינוי
Why doesn't
Rabbi Yossi bar Rabbi Yehuda exclude the
"warning" with the word "by her"?

The Gemara Answers:
קינוי איתקש לטומאה דכתיב וקנא את אשתו והיא נטמאה
There is a Hekesh between "warning" and "impurity", as
the verse
says "And he warned his wife and she was impure."

The Gemara Asks:
סתירה נמי איתקש לטומאה דכתיב ונסתרה והיא נטמאה
But there is also a Hekesh between "seclusion" and "impurity", as
the verse
says "and she was secluded and was impure."

The Gemara Answers:
ההוא לכמה שיעור סתירה כדי טומאה הוא דאתא
That Hekesh
teaches that the seclusion
must last the
amount
of time
necessary to become impure,
as will be expounded in .

 
Opinion What Does The Word Bah - "In Her" Exclude What Does the Hekesh Add?
Rabbi Yehoshua A single witness is not believed that one was warned or secluded. -
Rabbi Eliezer A single witness is not believed that one was warned. A single witness is believed that one was secluded.
Rabbi Yossi Bar Rabbi Yehuda A single witness is not believed that one was secluded. A single witness is believed that one was warned.
 
The Gemara quotes the second opinion of the Braisa:
השיבו חכמים לדברי ר'
=רבי
יוסי בר'
=ברבי
יהודה אין לדבר סוף
The Sages answered Rabbi Yossi the son of Rabbi Yehuda that
according to him,
there is no end to the matter.

The Gemara Asks:
מאי ניהו
What does that mean?
What is the Sages' concern?

דזמנין דלא קני ואמר קנאי
Is their concern that
the husband never actually warned
his wife and will lie to court
and say that he warned her?

הא למשנתינו יש לדבר סוף זמנין דלא איסתתר ואמר איסתתר
But does our Mishna
"have an end?"
Why are we not concerned that the husband may lie and say that his wife
was secluded when she wasn't?

The Gemara attempts to answer:
אמר רב יצחק בר יוסף א"ר
=אמר רבי
יוחנן אף לדברי רבי יוסי בר'
=ברבי
יהודה אין לדבר סוף
Rav Yitzchak Bar Yosef said in the name of Rabbi Yochanan
that the Braisa
said that
even
according to Rabbi Yossi the son of Rabbi Yehuda, there is no end to the matter.

The Gemara refutes this answer:
אף לדברי רבי יוסי בר'
=ברבי
יהודה ולא מיבעיא למשנתינו
Can the Braisa really say that
even
according to
the opinion
of Rabbi Yossi the son of Rabbi Yehuda
there is no end to the matter,
and all the more so
according to the
Mishna?

אדרבה למשנתינו איכא עיקר התם ליכא עיקר
The opposite is true!
According to
the Mishna's
ruling there is
a foundation
to the suspicion, as the Mishna says that the warning must take place in front of two witnesses to be effective, while according to
Rabbi Yossi the son of Rabbi Yehuda's ruling,
there does not have to be
a foundation
to the suspicion, as there is no proof that the warning took place altogether.

The Gemara Answers:
אלא אי איתמר הכי איתמר
Rather, if something was said, the following was said:

א"ר
=אמר רבי
יצחק בר יוסף א"ר
=אמר רבי
יוחנן לדברי ר'
=רבי
יוסי בר'
=ברבי
יהודה אף למשנתינו אין לדבר סוף
Rabbi Yitzchak bar Yosef said in the name of Rabbi Yochanan that
according to
Rabbi Yossi the son of Rabbi Yehuda, even
the ruling of the
Mishna has no end.

 
There are two opinions as to the Sages' concern:
1. Rashi says that the Sages require witnesses for the warning to prevent the husband (in a fit of anger, upon seeing his wife seclude herself) from lying that she was warned to disgrace her by forcing her to drink the Bitter waters.
2. Tosfos Shantz, however, says that the concern is that if the husband will lie and make her drink the Bitter water, the water will not check her and people will doubt the efficacy of the test.
 
 
Based on the opinion of Rabbi Yossi the son of Rabbi Yehuda ...
 
 
א"ר
=אמר רבי
חנינא מסורא לא לימא איניש לאיתתיה בזמן הזה לא תיסתרי בהדי פלוני דילמא
Rabbi Chanina from Sura said that one should not tell his wife nowadays not to
(illicitly)
seclude herself with someone,

דילמא קי"ל
=קיימא לן
כרבי יוסי בר' יהודה דאמר קינוי על פי עצמו ומיסתתרא וליכא האידנא מי סוטה למיבדקה וקאסר לה עילויה איסורא דלעולם
For
the Halacha may follow
Rabbi Yossi bar Yehuda's
ruling
, which says that the warning is effective
without witnesses
, and as there are no Bitter waters
after the destruction of the Beis Hamikdash , he will be
forbidden
to stay married.

 
 
 
The Gemara will now explain the meaning of the word "Kinui" (commonly translated as "warning") used in the .
 
There are three opinions:
 
1. - The warning makes others
jealous
and angry at the wife.
2. - The warning makes the wife
jealous
and angry at her husband.
3. - It just means a warning.
 
 
אמר ריש לקיש מה לשון קינוי דבר המטיל קנאה בינה לבין אחרים
1.
Reish Lakish said that the word "Kinui" means
a matter
which causes jealousy between
his wife
and others.

אלמא קסבר קינוי על פי עצמו וכולי עלמא לא ידעי דקני לה ואמרי מאי דקמא דקא בדלה ואתו למיעבד קנאה בהדה
Reish Lakish
reasons that the warning
be done
alone
without any outsiders' knowledge
, and others will say "Why did she separate from us" and will be angry at her.

ורב יימר בר ר'
=רב
שלמיא משמיה דאביי אמר דבר המטיל קנאה בינו לבינה אלמא קסבר קינוי על פי שנים עדים כולי עלמא ידעי דקני לה ואיהו הוא דאתי למיעבד קנאה בהדה
2.
Rav Yeimar the son of Rav Shalmia said in the name of Abaye that
the warning
is something which causes jealousy between
the husband
and
the wife
since he reasons that the warning must be done in front of
two
witnesses. Thus, everyone knows of this warning, and
the wife
will be
angry at
her husband
for publicizing his suspicion






Translation copyright by the OpenGemara project. If you would like permission to use our data, please contact us

Dedicated in loving memory of Leah Rivka Bas Reb Dovid HaKohen A"H.
Last build: 2019-01-31T02:13:56Z