Dedicate Daf 35a to:



וילכו ויבאו
"And they went and they came."

א"ר
אמר רבי
יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחי מקיש הליכה לביאה
Rabbi Yochanan said in the name of Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai that there is a Hekesh between
the spies
going and the spies
coming back, teaching that

מה ביאה בעצה רעה אף הליכה בעצה רעה
Just as
the spies
came back with bad intent, so too, they left
to spy
with bad intent.

 
The verse continues: "And they told him and they said: We came to the land to which you sent us, and it is, indeed, flowing with milk and honey, and these are its fruits. But the people are strong, who dwell in the land, and the cities are fortified, very great; and also the children of the giant did we see there. Amalek dwells in the land of the south, and the Chitti and the Yevussi and the Emori dwell in the mountain, and the Canaani dwell by the sea and by the Jordan. And Kalev silenced the people against Moshe. And he said: We would go up and we would inherit it, for we would prevail against it. And the men who went up with him said: We shall not be able to go up against the people, for they are stronger than He. And they gave out the evil report of the land which they had spied out to the children of Israel, saying: The land which we passed through to spy out is a land which consumes its inhabitants, and all of the people that we saw in it are men of (great) dimensions. And there we saw the Nefilim ("fallen ones"), the sons of Anak , from the Nefilim . And we were in our eyes like grasshoppers, and so were we in their eyes.
 
 
ויספרו לו ויאמרו באנו וגו' וכתיב אפס כי עז העם
"And they told him, and said" and "However, the people that dwell in the land are strong."

אמר רבי יוחנן משום ר"מ
רבי מאיר
כל לשון הרע שאין בו דבר אמת בתחילתו אין מתקיים בסופו
Rabbi Yochanan aid in the name of Rabbi Meir that any gossip which does not have a kernel of truth is not believed.

 
That's why the the spies said some truth about the goodness in Israel.
 
 
ויהס כלב את העם אל משה
"And Kalev stilled the people toward Moshe."

אמר רבה שהסיתן בדברים
Rabbah said that
Kalev
silenced the
Jewish people
with words:

פתח יהושע דקא משתעי
Yehoshua tried
talking,

אמרי ליה דין ראש קטיעה ימלל
The
Jewish
people responded
that
"this
childless
man speaks?"

 
He anyway won't have a portion in the land.
 
 
אמר אי משתעינא אמרי בי מילתא וחסמין לי
Kalev reasoned
that if he will
praise Moshe
, the
Jewish people
will silence
him as well.

אמר להן וכי זו בלבד עשה לנו בן עמרם
Therefore,
Kalev told
the Jews
"Is this all the son of Amram did for us?"

סברי בגנותיה קא משתעי אישתיקו
The Jews figured that Kalev
was about to speak negatively against Moshe and became quiet.

 
Calling Moshe "Ben Amram" was a sign of disrespect.
 
 
אמר להו הוציאנו ממצרים וקרע לנו את הים והאכילנו את המן אם יאמר עשו סולמות ועלו לרקיע לא נשמע לו
Kalev then said
"Moshe took us out of Egypt, split the sea and gave us the Manna. If he would tell us to make ladders and go to heaven, should we not listen to him?

 
 
 
עלה נעלה וירשנו אותה וגו' והאנשים אשר עלו עמו אמרו לא נוכל וגו'
"We should go up and possess it ... But the men that went up with him said: 'We are not able to go up against the people; for they are stronger than we.'"

אמר רבי חנינא בר פפא דבר גדול דברו מרגלים באותה שעה
Rabbi Chanina bar Papa said that the spies spoke a
terribly
great thing then:

כי חזק הוא ממנו
The spies
said that
the Canaanites are
stronger than us.

אל תקרא ממנו אלא ממנו
Don't expound
the verse as saying that the natives are greater than
us, but
the spies said that the natives are greater than
Hashem
(G - d forbid.)

כביכול אפילו בעל הבית אינו יכול להוציא כליו משם
The spies meant to say that
even the Owner
of the land of Israel
cannot remove his
dwellers
from there.

 
They contradicted Kalev. Kalev said that since Hashem took us out of Egypt, he can bring us to Israel. The spies said that the Canaanites were stronger than the Egyptians, and Hashem was unable to defeat them (G - d forbid). The spies became heretics.
 
 
 
ארץ אוכלת יושביה היא
"It's a land which devours its inhabitants"

דרש רבא
Rava expounded
the verse:

אמר הקב"ה
הקדוש ברוך הוא
אני חשבתיה לטובה והם חשבו לרעה
Hashem said that "I thought to do them a favor but they thought evil
of Me,
"

The Gemara will explain what favor did Hashem do:
אני חשבתיה לטובה דכל היכא דמטו מת חשיבא דידהו כי היכי דניטרדו ולא לשאלו אבתרייהו
1.
I arranged that wherever
the spies
went, an important person would pass away, so that everyone would be busy
with funerals
and no one would have time to inquire
after the spies.

ואיכא דאמרי איוב נח נפשיה ואטרידו כולי עלמא בהספידא
2.
And some say that Job passed away
to prevent his merit from protecting the seven nations
and everyone was involved with his eulogy.

הם חשבו לרעה ארץ אוכלת יושביה היא
And
the spies
used it out for the bad, claiming that
Israel
was a land which
killed
its inhabitants.

 
 
 
ונהי בעינינו כחגבים וכן היינו וגו'
"And we were in our own sight as grasshoppers, and so we were in their sight"

אמר רב משרשיא מרגלים שקרי הוו
Rav Mesharshia said that
this verse shows that the
spies were liars:

בשלמא ונהי בעינינו כחגבים לחיי
While
the spies could have been
like grasshoppers in their own eyes,

אלא וכן היינו בעיניהם מנא הוו ידעי
How did they know
how the natives saw them?

ולא היא
But it's not
necessarily
true
that the spies lied,

כי הוו מברי אבילי תותי ארזי הוו מברי וכי חזינהו סלקו יתבי באילני
For
the Canaanites
would console their mourners
wile sitting
under cedars. When
the spies realized that they were spotted, they climbed
up
to hide.

שמעי דקאמרי קחזינן אינשי דדמו לקמצי באילני
They heard
the natives
say "We see men that look like ants up the tree."

 
Implying that the locals did think they were grasshoppers, and it wasn't something the spies invented.
 
 
ותשא כל העדה ויתנו את קולם ויבכו
"And all the congregation lifted up their voice, and cried."

אמר רבה אמר רבי יוחנן אותו היום
ערב
תשעה באב היה
Rabbah said in the name of Rabbi Yochanan that
the day the spies came back
was the
eighth of Av, and the Jews cried that night - the night of the ninth of Av.

אמר הקב"ה
הקדוש ברוך הוא
הן בכו בכיה של חנם ואני אקבע להם בכיה לדורות
Hashem said that since
the Jews
cried a warrantless cry, that day
shall be a
day of mourning forever.

 
And on that day the Temples were destroyed.
 
 
ויאמרו כל העדה לרגום אותם באבנים וכתיב וכבוד ה'
השם
נראה באהל מועד
"But all the congregation said to stone them with stones, and the glory of Hashem appeared in the tent of meeting unto all the children of Israel."

אמר רבי חייא בר אבא מלמד שנטלו אבנים וזרקום כלפי מעלה
Rabbi Chiya bar Abba said that
this verse
teaches that
the Jews
took stones and through them up
as if to stone Hashem (G - d Forbid).

 
 
 
וימותו האנשים מוציאי דבת הארץ רעה במגפה
"Those men that did bring up an evil report of the land, died by the plague before Hashem."

אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש שמתו מיתה משונה
Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said that
the spies
died a disgraceful death:

There are two opinions about how the spies died:
אמר רבי חנינא בר פפא דרש ר' שילא איש כפר תמרתא מלמד שנשתרבב לשונם ונפל על טיבורם והיו תולעים יוצאות מלשונם ונכנסות בטיבורם ומטיבורם ונכנסות בלשונם
1.
Rabbi Chanina bar Papa said that Rabbi Shila from the village of Tamrasa said that
the spies'
tongue extended from their mouth to the belly.
Then,
worms went from their mouths to their bellies, and
back
from the belly into their mouth.

ורב נחמן בר יצחק אמר באסכרה מתו
2.
Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak said that the
spies
died from Askara

The Gemara returns back to the discussion about the Jews crossing the Jordan.
:וכיון שעלה האחרון שבישראל מן הירדן חזרו מים למקומן
Once the last Jew left the Jordan river, the water flowed back to their place

שנאמר ויהי בעלות הכהנים נושאי ארון ברית ה' מתוך הירדן נתקו כפות רגלי הכהנים אל החרבה וישובו מי הירדן למקומם וילכו כתמול שלשום על כל גדותיו
As
the verse
says "And it came to pass, as the Kohanim that bore the Aron of Hashem came up out of the midst of the Jordan, as soon as the soles of the Kohanims' feet were drawn up unto the dry ground, that the waters of the Jordan returned unto their place, and went over all its banks, as before."

נמצא ארון ונושאיו וכהנים מצד אחד וישראל מצד אחד
The Aron was on
the Jordan
side
of the Jordan river,
while the Jews
were on Israel's
side of
the Jordan river
.

נשא ארון את נושאיו ועבר
Then the Aron carried those who carried it
to the other side of the Jordan river,

שנאמר ויהי כאשר תם כל העם לעבור ויעבור ארון ה'
השם
והכהנים לפני העם
As
the verse
says "And it came to pass, when all the people were clean passed over, that the Aron of Hashem passed on, and the Kohanim, before the people."

ועל דבר זה נענש עוזא
And as a result
from failing to properly internalize this verse
, Uzzah was punished:

שנאמר ויבאו עד גורן כידון וישלח עוזא את ידו לאחוז את הארון
As
the verse
says "And when they came unto the threshing floor of Kidon , Uzzah put forth his hand to hold the Aron; for the oxen stumbled."

אמר לו הקב"ה
הקדוש ברוך הוא
עוזא נושאיו נשא עצמו לא כל שכן
Hashem
called out
"Uzzah, if
the Aron
carries those
Kohanim who
carry it, all the more so it carries itself!"

The Gemara will now discuss the story of Uzzah:
 
After Israel's defeat under Shaul and his death, Dovid Hamelech took the throne, and went to war against the advancing Plishtim. Victorious, he not only saved the Jewish people, but also won back the Aron. The verse says: "Dovid arose and went with all the people that were with him from Baalei Yehuda, to bring up from there the Aron of Hashem, whose name is called by the name of Lord of Hosts who dwells upon the Cherubim. They had the Aron of Hashem ride on a new wagon. They carried it from the house of Avinodov that is in Givoh . Uzzah and Achyo , the sons of Avinodov were driving the new wagon. They carried it from the house of Avinodov that was in Givoh accompanying the Aron of Hashem , and Achyo went before the Aron. Dovid and all the house of Israel were rejoicing before Hashem with all (instruments made of) cypress wood (such as) harps, lyres, drums, coronets and cymbals. They came to the granary of Nochon and Uzzah stretched
his hand
towards the Aron of Hashem and held it because the ox had
made
it slip. Hashem became angry with Uzzah and Hashem struck him there because of his mistake. He died there by the Aron of Hashem. Dovid was angered (with himself) concerning the breach of Uzzah and he called that place Peretz Uzzah until this day ... When the carriers of the Aron of Hashem stepped six paces, he sacrificed oxen and fattened oxen."
 
 
ויחר אף ה'
השם
בעוזא ויכהו שם על השל וגו'
"And the anger of Hashem was kindled against Uzzah; and Hashem smote him there for his error"

רבי יוחנן ור"א
ורבי אליעזר
There is an argument
between Rabbi Yochanan and Rabbi Eliezer:

חד אמר על עסקי שלו וחד אמר שעשה צרכיו בפניו
One said that
Uzzah passed away
due to his error
of grasping the Aron, and the other opinion
says that he passed away for
going to the bathroom
in front
of the Aron.

 
 
 
וימת שם עם ארון האלהים
"And there he died with the Aron of Hashem."

א"ר יוחנן עוזא בא לעוה"ב
Rabbi Yochanan said that Uzzah went
directly
to the World to Come,

שנאמר עם ארון האלהים
As
the verse
says "with the Aron of Hashem".

מה ארון לעולם קיים אף עוזא בא לעוה"ב
Just as the Aron exists forever
and was never captured,
so too did Uzzah go to the
eternal
World to Come.

 
 
 
ויחר לדוד על אשר פרץ ה' פרץ בעוזא
"And David was displeased, because Hashem had broken forth upon Uzzah."

א"ר אלעזר שנשתנו פניו כחררה
Rabbi Elazar said that
King David's
face turned
to the color
of a
burned
cake.

The Gemara Asks:
אלא מעתה כל היכא דכתיב ויחר ה"נ
הכי נמי
Is it true that
whenever
the verse
uses the word " Vayichar " it means
that the person's face turned black?

The Gemara Answers:
התם כתיב אף הכא לא כתיב אף
In
all other cases where the word " Vayichar " appears, it comes with the word
"wrath" while
in the incident of Uzzah, it doesn't.

 
 
 
דרש רבא
Rava expounded:

מפני מה נענש דוד
Why was King David punished?

מפני שקרא לדברי תורה זמירות
Because he called the words of Torah "songs,"

שנאמר זמירות היו לי חוקיך בבית מגורי
As the verse
says "your statutes have been my songs in the house of my wandering."

אמר לו הקב"ה
הקדוש ברוך הוא
Hashem told
Dovid Hamelech:

ד"ת
דברי תורה
שכתוב בהן התעיף עיניך בו ואיננו אתה קורא אותן זמירות הריני מכשילך בדבר שאפילו תינוקות של בית רבן יודעין אותו
The words of Torah,
which are so easy to forget that the verse writes about them
"Should you blink your eyes upon it, it is no longer there", you call songs? I will make you stumble in a sin which even schoolchildren know
to avoid
,

 
Even one who learned nothing but Chumash knows that one is not allowed to place the Aron on a wagon.
 
 
דכתיב ולבני קהת לא נתן כי עבודת הקודש וגו'
As
the verse says
"But unto the sons of Kehos he gave none
- wagons -
, because the service of the holy
things belonged unto them: they bore them upon their shoulders.
"

ואיהו אתייה בעגלתא
But
King David, not paying attention to this explicit verse,
brought
the Aron to Yerushalayim
in a wagon.

 
 
 
ויך באנשי בית שמש כי ראו בארון
"And He smote of the men of Beis Shemesh , because they had gazed upon the Aron of Hashem".

The Gemara Asks:
משום דראו ויך (אלהים)
They were smitten just for seeing the Aron?

The Gemara Answers:
רבי אבהו ורבי אלעזר
There is an argument
between Rabbi Avahu and Rabbi Elazar
what was their sin:

חד אמר קוצרין ומשתחוים היו
1.
One said that they bowed
to the Aron while continuing their harvest, ignoring Hashem's honor,

וחד אמר מילי נמי אמור
2.
And the other opined that they also said






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