Dedicate Daf 36b to:



לא כדרך שחלוקין בחומש הפקודים חלוקין באבני אפוד אלא כדרך שחלוקין בחומש שני
The
names of the twelve tribes were engraved
in the other
written
in the
beginning of Shemos
, rather than
the order they were written in the book of
Bamidbar.

כיצד
What was the order
of the tribes as they were engraved?

בני לאה כסידרן
2.
The sons of Leah went in order,

 
Reuven, Shimon, Levi, Yehuda, Yissachar, and Zevulun.
 
 
בני רחל אחד מכאן ואחד מכאן
The sons of Rachel
were split,
one
on each side of Bilha's and Zilpa's children's names.

ובני שפחות באמצע
And the sons of
Bilha and Zilpa
in the middle.

 
Yosef, Gad, Asher, Dan, Naftali, Binyamin.
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
ואלא מאי אני מקיים כתולדותם
So why
does the verse write
"Like their birth?"

The Gemara Answers:
כשמותן שקרא להן אביהן ולא כשמות שקרא להן משה
That the names
were the names their father
Yaakov
gave them, and not the names Moshe gave them:

ראובן ולא ראובני שמעון ולא שמעוני דן ולא הדני גד ולא הגדי
For example,
Reuven
was spelled as Reuven
and not Reuveni , Shimon and not Shimoni , Dan and not HaDani , Gad and not HaGadi .

 
Though according to neither of these two opinions was the division of the stone the same as that of Mt. Grizim and Mt. Eival!
 
 
 
תיובתא דרב כהנא תיובתא
This is
a disproof of Rav Kahana
who said that they were engraved in the order they stood on Mt. Grizim and Mt. Eival.

The Gemara Asks:
ואלא מאי והחציו
So what does "And the half"
teach
?

The Gemara Answers:
תנא חציו של מול הר גריזים מרובה מחציו של הר עיבל מפני שלוי למטה
A Braisa taught that the half on Mt. Grizim was greater than the half on Mt. Eival, since Levi was on the bottom of the mountain
(in the valley between them).

The Gemara says that this doesn't make sense
אדרבה מפני שלוי למטה בצרי להו
It should be the opposite. If Levi was on the bottom,
Mt. Grizim should have
had less
people!

 
Mt. Grizim really had five tribes, while Mt. Eival had six.
 
 
Rather...
 
 
הכי קאמר
This is what
the Braisa meant to say:

אף על פי שלוי למטה בני יוסף עמהם
Even though that the
tribe
of Levi were on the bottom,
there were more people on Mt. Grizim since the tribe of
Yosef was
on it.

שנאמר וידברו בני יוסף את יהושע לאמר מדוע נתתה לי נחלה גורל אחד וחבל אחד ואני עם רב
As
the verse
says "And the children of Yosef spoke to Yehoshua, saying: 'Why have you given me but one lot and one part for an inheritance, seeing I am a great people.'"

ויאמר אליהם יהושע אם עם רב אתה עלה לך היערה
So Yehoshua answered back "And Yehoshua said to them: 'If you are a great people, go up to the forest.'"

אמר להן לכו והחבאו עצמכם ביערים שלא תשלוט בכם עין הרע
Yehoshua told Yosef's descendants
that if you are a
numerous
people, you should go to the forests so the evil eye won't affect you.

אמרו ליה זרעיה דיוסף לא שלטא ביה עינא בישא
The tribe of Yosef
answered back that the descendants of Yosef do not suffer from the evil eye.

The Gemara cites two sources for this:
דכתיב בן פורת יוסף בן פורת עלי עין
1.
As
the verse says
"Yosef is a fruitful vine, A fruitful vine by a fountain."

ואמר ר' אבהו אל תהי קורא עלי עין אלא עולי עין
And Rabbi Avahu answered that one should not read
the above verse
as "by a fountain" but as "goes over
the evil
eye."
(And doesn't let the evil eye go above it.)

רבי יוסי בר' חנינא אמר מהכא וידגו לרוב בקרב הארץ
2.
Rabbi Yossi bar Chanina said that
one can derive that the descendants of Yosef do not suffer from the evil eye
from
the verse
"and let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth."

מה דגים שבים מים מכסין עליהן ואין העין שולטת בהן אף זרעו של יוסף אין העין שולטת בהן
This verse compares Yosef to fish since
just as fish are under water and the evil eye doesn't affect them, so too the evil eye doesn't affect Yosef's descendants.

 
 
The Gemara said that there are fifty letters on the stones.
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
הני חמשים אותיות חמשים נכי חדא הויין
There are
fifty letters? There are
only
forty nine!

The Gemara attempts an answer:
א"ר יצחק יוסף הוסיפו לו אות אחת שנאמר עדות ביהוסף שמו בצאתו על ארץ מצרים
Rabbi Yitzchak said that Yosef had an extra letter added to his name, as it says "He appointed it in Yehosef for a testimony, when He went forth against the land of Egypt."

The Gemara rejects this answer:
מתקיף לה רב נחמן בר יצחק כתולדותם בעינן
But Rav Nachman said that
the names that were written
were their birth names
and not the name given to them in Tehillim.

The Gemara answers a second answer:
אלא כל התורה כולה בנימן כתיב והכא בנימין שלם כדכתיב ואביו קרא לו בנימין
Rather, in the whole Torah Binyamin is spelled
without the last Yud
, while
at birth, Binyamin is spelled with two Yuds,
as
the verse
says "And his father called him Binyamin."

The Gemara will now discuss Yosef:
אמר רב חנא בר ביזנא א"ר שמעון חסידא
Rav Chama bar Bizna said in the name of Shimon the Chossid:

יוסף שקידש שם שמים בסתר הוסיפו עליו אות אחת משמו של הקב"ה יהודה שקידש שם שמים בפרהסיא נקרא כולו על שמו של הקב"ה
Yosef, who sanctified Hashem's name privately, merited to have a letter of Hashem's name added to his name, while Yehuda, who publicly sanctified Hashem's name, was
completely
named after Hashem's name.

 
Yehuda (in Hebrew) is spelled Yud Hei Vav Daled Hei - Hashem's four letter name with a Daled in the middle.
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
יוסף מאי היא
How did Yosef sanctify Hashem's name?

The Gemara Answers:
דכתיב ויהי כהיום הזה ויבא הביתה לעשות מלאכתו
The verse
says "And it came to pass on a certain day, when he went into the house to do his work".

א"ר יוחנן מלמד ששניהם לדבר עבירה נתכוונו
Rabbi Yochanan said that both
Yosef and Potifar's wife
intended to sin.

 
 
 
ויבא הביתה לעשות מלאכתו
"When he went into the house to do his work"

 
There is an argument over how to interpret this verse:
 
 
רב ושמואל
There is an argument between
Rav and Shmuel
about the meaning of the "work" which Yosef was about to do:

חד אמר לעשות מלאכתו ממש
1.
One
held that
Yosef came to work.

וחד אמר לעשות צרכיו נכנס
2.
And
the other held
that Yosef came to commit immorality.

 
 
 
ואין איש מאנשי הבית וגו'
"And there was none of the men of the house there within."

אפשר בית גדול כביתו של אותו רשע לא היה בו איש
Is it possible that out of a large household such as Potifar's, not one was present?

תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל אותו היום יום חגם היה והלכו כולן לבית עבודת כוכבים שלהם והיא אמרה להן חולה היא
A Tanna from the academy of Rabbi Yishmael
said that since that day
was an idolatrous festival,
and when
everyone went to their
idolatrous
temple, she
stayed home,
pretending to be ill.

אמרה אין לי יום שניזקק לי יוסף כיום הזה
She reasoned that there was no better opportunity to seduce Yosef than that day.

 
 
 
ותתפשהו בבגדו לאמר וגו'
"That she caught him by his garment."

באותה שעה באתה דיוקנו של אביו ונראתה לו בחלון
A vision of
Yaakov
showed itself through a window.

 
 
 
אמר לו יוסף עתידין אחיך שיכתבו על אבני אפוד ואתה ביניהם רצונך שימחה שמך מביניהם ותקרא רועה זונות
This vision of Yaakov said
"Yosef, when your brother's
names
will be written on the Ephod, you should be among them. Do you want your name to be erased and
instead be called
a 'consort of harlots'?"

דכתיב ורועה זונות יאבד הון
As
the verse
says "but he that keeps company with harlots wastes his substance."

 
And all the more so one's good name, which is worth more than "substance."
 
 
מיד ותשב באיתן קשתו
"But his bow abode firm."

א"ר יוחנן משום ר' מאיר ששבה קשתו לאיתנו
Rabbi Yochanan taught in the name of Rabbi Meir that his "bow"
(his male organ)
returned back to its
natural position.

 
 
 
ויפוזו זרועי ידיו
"And the arms of his hands were spread"

נעץ ידיו בקרקע ויצאה שכבת זרעו מבין ציפורני ידיו
Yosef
thrust his
fingers
into the ground and semen went out from between his nails.

 
 
 
מידי אביר יעקב
"By the hands of the Mighty One of Yaakov"

מי גרם לו שיחקק על אבני אפוד אלא אביר יעקב
Who caused
that Yosef's name
should be engraved on the stones of the Ephod? The strength of his father.

 
 
 
משם רועה אבן ישראל
"From there, from the Shepherd, the Stone of Israel,"

משם זכה ונעשה רועה
From
not sinning with Potifar's wife, Yosef
merited to be a shepherd
of Israel,

שנאמר רועה ישראל האזינה נוהג כצאן יוסף
As
the verse
says "Give ear, Shepherd of Israel, You lead the flock of Yosef."

תניא היה ראוי יוסף לצאת ממנו י"ב שבטים כדרך שיצאו מיעקב אביו
A Braisa taught that Yosef should have had twelve sons like his father Yaakov,

שנאמר אלה תולדות יעקב יוסף
As
the verse
says "These are the generations of Yaakov, Yosef."

אלא שיצא שכבת זרעו מבין ציפורני ידיו
But since semen went out from his nails
he lost the privilege,

ואעפ"כ יצאו מבנימין אחיו וכולן נקראו על שמו
But nonetheless,
he didn't lose the privilege completely, as the
ten sons who were born to Binyamin were named after him:

שנאמר ובני בנימין בלע ובכר ואשבל וגו'
As
the verse
says "and the sons of Binyamin were Belah , Bechar , Eshbol , etc."

The Gemara will now discuss the names of Minyamin's sons:
בלע שנבלע בין האומות
" Belah "
was named after Yosef as he
was swallowed by the nations,

ובכר בכור לאמו היה
Bechor
was named after Yosef as he
was a firstborn to his mother,

ואשבל ששבאו אל
Eshbol
was named after Yosef as he
was sent by Hashem into captivity,

גרא שגר באכסניות
Gera
was named after Yosef as he
he lived in
temporary lodgings,

ונעמן שנעים ביותר
Naaman
was named after Yosef as he
was exceedingly pleasant,

אחי וראש אחי הוא וראשי הוא
Achi and Rosh
were named after Yosef as he
was
Binyamin's
brother and head,

מופים וחופים הוא לא ראה בחופתי ואני לא ראיתי בחופתו
Mupim and Chupim
were named after Yosef as he
didn't see
Binyamin's wedding
canopy and
Yosef
didn't see his,

וארד שירד לבין אומות העולם
And Ered
was named after Yosef as he
was brought down
in captivity
to the nations of the world.

א"ד וארד שפניו דומין לוורד
And some say
that the name was
" Vered ",
and was named after Yosef as
his face
was as beautiful
as a rose.

 
 
 
א"ר חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן בשעה שאמר לו פרעה ליוסף ובלעדיך לא ירים איש את ידו וגו' אמרו איצטגניני פרעה עבד שלקחו רבו בעשרים כסף תמשילהו עלינו
Rabbi Chiya bar Abba said in the name of Rabbi Yochanan that when Pharaoh
issued his decree
that no one may raise their hand or feet
without Yosef' permission,
Pharaoh's astrologers asked how could a slave, who was sold for two silver
coins
be appointed a ruler over them?

אמר להן גנוני מלכות אני רואה בו
Pharaoh
answered back that he sees
that Yosef possesses
royal manners.

אמרו לו א"כ יהא יודע בשבעים לשון
The astrologers
asked that if
Yosef is royal
, he should know
all the
seventy languages.

בא גבריאל ולימדו שבעים לשון
Gavriel came
to Yosef
and taught him all seventy languages.

 
As was mentioned on page .
 
 
לא הוה קגמר
Yosef
was unable to learn
them.

הוסיף לו אות אחת משמו של הקב"ה ולמד
Gavriel
added to Yosef a letter of Hashem's name, and he was able to learn
the seventy languages.

שנאמר עדות ביהוסף שמו בצאתו על ארץ מצרים
As
the verse says
"He appointed it in Yosef for a testimony, when He went forth against the land of Egypt."

(שפת לא ידעתי אשמע) ולמחר כל לישנא דאישתעי פרעה בהדיה אהדר ליה
The next day,
during Pharaoh's test
, Yosef responded in whatever language Pharaoh talked to him,

אישתעי איהו בלשון הקדש לא הוה קא ידע
However, when Yosef tried talking to Pharaoh
in Hebrew, Pharaoh was unable to respond.

מאי הוה אמר
What did
Pharaoh ask of Yosef?

א"ל אגמרי אגמריה
Pharaoh asked of Yosef
to teach him
Hebrew.

ולא גמר
But Pharaoh was
unable to learn.

אמר ליה אישתבע לי דלא מגלית
Pharaoh asked
Yosef to swear to him not to reveal
the secret that Yosef knew more languages than Pharaoh.

אישתבע לו
Yosef
swore.

כי א"ל אבי השביעני לאמור
When
Yosef
told Pharaoh that his father
(Yaakov)
made him swear to bring his coffin to Israel,

א"ל זיל איתשיל אשבועתך
Pharaoh told Yosef that he should just annul the vow.

אמר ליה ואיתשלי נמי אדידך
Yosef threatened Pharaoh
that
if he will annul his vow to his father,
he will also annul his vow
to Pharaoh.

ואע"ג דלא ניחא ליה א"ל עלה וקבור את אביך כאשר השביעך
And even though it was not to
Pharaoh's
liking, he permitted
Yosef
to leave Egypt to bury his father.

The Gemara returns to Yehuda's sanctification of Hashem's name:
יהודה מאי היא
How did Yehuda cause a public sanctification of Hashem's name?

דתניא
A Braisa
taught:

היה ר"מ אומר כשעמדו ישראל על הים היו שבטים מנצחים זה עם זה
Rabbi Meir said that as the Jews were standing by the Red Sea, the tribes were arguing with each other,

זה אומר אני יורד תחלה לים וזה אומר אני יורד תחלה לים
Each one said that they
will be the first to jump into the sea.

קפץ
...






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Dedicated in loving memory of Leah Rivka Bas Reb Dovid HaKohen A"H.
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