Dedicate Daf 38a to:



ככתבו
As it was
spelled (Yud and Hei...),

ובמדינה בכינויו
But outside
the Beis Hamikdash , the blessings are said using Hashem's
nickname
(i.e the name spelled through Aleph Daled).

במדינה כהנים נושאים את ידיהן כנגד כתפיהן ובמקדש על גבי ראשיהן
3. Outside the Beis Hamikdash
, the Kohanim lift their hands until the shoulders, while in the Beis Hamikdash ,
the Kohanim would lift their hands
above their head
(since in the Beis Hamikdash , the Divine Presence is above the Kohanim's fingers),

חוץ מכהן גדול שאינו מגביה את ידיו למעלה מן הציץ
Except for the Kohen Gadol , who is not allowed to lift his hands above the Tzitz
(since Hashem's name is written on it).

 
Though this last point is debatable, as...
 
 
ר' יהודה אומר אף כהן גדול מגביה ידיו למעלה מן הציץ שנאמר וישא אהרן את ידיו אל העם ויברכם:
Rabbi Yehuda said that even the Kohen Gadol may lift his hands above the Tzitz, as
the verse
says "And Aharon lifted up his hands toward the people, and blessed them."

Gemara
The Gemara discusses the source that the Priestly Blessings must be recited in Hebrew. There are two opinions:
תנו רבנן
1.
The Sages taught:

כה תברכו בלשון הקודש
The verse
"Thus shall you bless"
teaches that the Priestly Blessings must be said
in Hebrew.

The Gemara Asks:
אתה אומר בלשון הקודש או אינו אלא בכל לשון
How does this prove that the Priestly Blessings must be recited
in Hebrew versus another language?

The Gemara Answers:
נאמר כאן כה תברכו ונאמר להלן אלה יעמדו לברך את העם
Regarding the Priestly Blessing, the verse says
"Thus shall you bless", and
about the blessings on Mt. Grizim, the verse says
"These
shall stand upon mount Grizim
to bless the people,"

 
The Gezeira Shava links the words "Blessing," teaching that...
 
 
מה להלן בלשון הקודש אף כאן בלשון הקודש
Just as
the Levites must bless in Hebrew
, so too must the Kohanim bless in Hebrew.

 
 
 
רבי יהודה אומר אינו צריך
2.
Rabbi Yehuda said
that the Gezeira Shava
is unnecessary,

הרי הוא אומר כה עד שיאמרו בלשון הזה
Since
the verse describing the Priestly Blessings
says
the word
"Thus",
the blessings are invalid
unless they are said "Thus
(In Hebrew)."

 
 
Source that Priestly Blessings must be in Hebrew.
The Sages Gezeira Shava of Blessing.
Rabbi Yehuda The word "Thus"
 
 
 
תניא אידך
Another
Braisa
taught:

כה תברכו בעמידה
"Thus shall you bless"
teaches that the Priestly Blessings must be recited
standing.

The Gemara Asks:
אתה אומר בעמידה או אינו אלא אפי' בישיבה
What is the source that the Priestly Blessings
be said standing?

The Gemara cites two answers:
נאמר כאן כה תברכו ונאמר להלן אלה יעמדו לברך
1. One verse
says
(discussing the Priestly Blessings)
"thus shall you bless" and
another verse says (discussing the Mt. Grizim blessings)
"These shall stand upon Mt. Grizim to bless the people,"

מה להלן בעמידה אף כאן בעמידה
Just as
Mt. Grizim blessings
must be said standing, so too
must the Priestly Blessings
be said standing.

 
 
 
ר' נתן אומר אינו צריך
2.
Rabbi Nasan said that
the Gezeira Shava
in unnecessary,

הרי הוא אומר לשרתו ולברך בשמו
For
a verse explicitly
says "to stand before Hashem to serve Him, and to bless in His name."

 
There is a Hekesh linking serving in the Beis Hamikdash and saying the Priestly Blessings, so...
 
 
מה משרת בעמידה אף מברך בעמידה
Just as
a Kohen must
serve
in the Beis Hamikdash
standing, so too must
the Kohen say the Priestly Blessings
standing.

So the Gemara asks for a source:
ומשרת גופיה מנלן
And what is the source that
a Kohen must
serve
in the Beis Hamikdash
standing?

The Gemara Answers:
דכתיב לעמוד לשרת
Since
the verse
says "to stand ... to serve."

 
 
 
תניא אידך
A third Braisa
taught:

כה תברכו בנשיאות כפים
"So shall you bless" - with raised hands

אתה אומר בנשיאות כפים או אינו אלא שלא בנשיאות כפים
What is the source that the Priestly Blessings be performed
with outstretched hands?

The Gemara cites two answers:
נאמר כאן כה תברכו
1. The verse (discussing the Priestly Blessings)
says "thus shall you bless,"

ונאמר להלן וישא אהרן את ידיו אל העם ויברכם
And
another verse
says "And Aharon lifted up his hands toward the people, and blessed them."

 
There is a Hekesh linking the Priestly Blessings and Aharon's blessing, teaching that...
 
 
מה להלן בנשיאות כפים אף כאן בנשיאות כפים
Just as
Aharon blessed the people
with outstretched hands, so too
the Priestly Blessings
must be said with outstretched hands.

The Gemara Asks:
קשיא ליה לר' יונתן
Rabbi Yochanan asked:

אי מה להלן כהן גדול וראש חודש ועבודת צבור אף כאן כהן גדול וראש חודש ועבודת ציבור
If the two must be similar, then
just as
Aharon
was a Kohen Gadol ,
said his blessings
on Rosh Chodesh , and
the blessing was said in the middle of a
public service
in the Mishkan,
so too should
Priestly Blessings only be performed
by a Kohen Gadol , on Rosh Chodesh , and in
the middle of
a public service
in the Beis Hamikdash .

 
 
 
ר' נתן אומר אינו צריך
2.
Rabbi Nasan said that
since the Gezeira Shava was disproved, we need the following Hekesh:

הרי הוא אומר הוא ובניו כל הימים
Since
a verse
says "him and his sons for ever."

מקיש בניו לו
There is a Hekesh
between
Aharon's
children
to Aharon,

מה הוא בנשיאות כפים אף בניו בנשיאות כפים
Just
as Aharon said his blessings
with outstretched hands, so too must
his children, the Kohanim,
say their blessings with outstretched hands,

וכתיב כל הימים
And
the verse
says "all his days,"

ואיתקש ברכה לשירות
And
despite this verse discussing the service in the Beis Hamikdash and not the Priestly Blessings,
there is a Hekesh
connecting the laws of the Priestly
Blessings and the service
of the Beis Hamikdash
service.

 
 
 
ותניא אידך
Another
Braisa
taught:

כה תברכו את בני ישראל בשם המפורש
"Thus shall you bless the Jews" - with
Hashem's
explicit
four letter
name.

The Gemara Asks:
אתה אומר בשם המפורש או אינו אלא בכינוי
What is the source that the Priestly blessings must
be
said
with Hashem's explicit
four letter
name?

The Gemara cites two answers:
ת"ל ושמו את שמי
1. The verse
said "And you shall place My name".

The verse doesn't say which name:
So the Gemara answers that the default name is:
שמי המיוחד לי
My unique name.

So the Gemara continues asking:
יכול אף בגבולין כן
One may think that
one should
say
the Priestly blessings with Hashem's full name
even outside the Beis Hamikdash ,

 
As that verse doesn't differentiate between saying the blessings inside the Beis Hamikdash or outside.
 
 
The Gemara Answers:
נאמר כאן ושמו את שמי ונאמר להלן לשום את שמו שם
The verse
says
in one verse
"And you shall place My name", and
another verse discussing the Beis Hamikdash
says "to put His name there,"

מה להלן בית הבחירה אף כאן בבית הבחירה
Just
as Hashem's name was placed
on the Beis Hamikdash , so too
may Hashem's name be used in the Priestly Blessings
only in the Beis Hamikdash .

 
 
 
רבי יאשיה אומר אינו צריך
2.
Rabbi Yoshia said that
Gezeira Shava
is unnecessary,

הרי הוא אומר בכל המקום אשר אזכיר את שמי אבוא אליך
A different verse
says "in every place where I cause My name to be mentioned I will come to you and bless you."

The Gemara Asks:
בכל מקום ס"ד
Can it be
that Hashem will come
to any place?

 
But one is not allowed to say Hashem's four letter name everywhere, so how could Hashem come
wherever
we mention His name to bless us?
 
 
The Gemara Answers:
אלא מקרא זה מסורס הוא
Rather, this verse is
not in order,

בכל מקום אשר אבוא אליך וברכתיך שם אזכיר את שמי
The verse should be read as
"Any place where I come to you and bless you, there I will cause My name to be mentioned."

והיכן אבוא אליך וברכתיך
And where will
Hashem
come to bless?

בבית הבחירה
In the Beis Hamikdash ,

שם אזכיר את שמי בבית הבחירה
So from that verse alone, one can derive that
"There shall you mention my name" refers
only
to the Beis Hamikdash .

 
 
 
תניא אידך
Another Braisa
taught:

כה תברכו את בני ישראל
"Thus shall you bless the Sons of Israel,"

The Gemara Asks:
אין לי אלא בני ישראל גרים נשים ועבדים משוחררים מנין
This verse teaches that the Kohen blesses
the
sons
of
Israel
(Yaakov), but
what's the source that
the Kohen should bless
the converts
(who are not sons of
Israel
)
, women
(who are not
sons
of Israel)
and emancipated slaves
(who, like converts, are not sons of
Israel
)?

The Gemara Answers:
ת"ל אמור להם לכולהו
The verse
says "Say to them",
which include converts, women, and emancipated slaves.

 
 
 
תניא אידך
Another Braisa
taught:

The Gemara Asks:
כה תברכו פנים כנגד פנים
"Thus shall you bless" - face to face.

אתה אומר פנים כנגד פנים או אינו אלא פנים כנגד עורף
What is the source that the Priestly Blessings to be made
face to face?

The Gemara Answers:
ת"ל אמור להם כאדם האומר לחבירו
The verse says
"And you shall say to them",
which teaches that during the Priestly Blessings, a Kohen should be
as a man speaks to his friend
- face to face.

 
 
 
תניא אידך
Another Braisa
taught:

The Gemara Asks:
כה תברכו בקול רם או אינו אלא בלחש
What is the source that
"Thus shall you bless"
means that the Priestly Blessings must be recited
loudly?

The Gemara Answers:
ת"ל אמור להם כאדם שאומר לחבירו
The verse says
"Speak to them" -
the Priestly Blessings should be said
as a man speaks to his friend.

 
 
 
אמר אביי נקטינן לשנים קורא כהנים ולא' אינו קורא כהן
Abaye said that
the Chazzan
close
When the Chazzan finishes Modim , he says the word "Kohanim" out loud, signalling that the Kohanim should turn around and perform the Priestly Blessings.
calls "Kohanim"
if
two Kohanim
are present,
but
he does not call "Kohanim" if if only
one Kohen
is present,

שנא' אמור להם
As
the verse
says "Say to them - "

לשנים
The word "them" implies that there must be at least
two
Kohanim present.

ואמר רב חסדא נקטינן כהן קורא כהנים ואין ישראל קורא כהנים
Rav Chisda said that
only
a Kohen Chazzan may call out "Kohanim", but not an Israelite
Chazzan,

שנאמר אמור להם
Since
the verse
says "and you shall say to them."

אמירה
"Saying"






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Dedicated in loving memory of Leah Rivka Bas Reb Dovid HaKohen A"H.
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