Dedicate Daf 3b to:



ורבי עקיבא א"כ
=אם כן
ליכתוב רחמנא לה ולישתוק
Rabbi Akiva
reasons that if the Torah only intended to teach that a Kohen may not defile himself for his sister's limbs, it should only have
written
the word
"for her."

טמא למה לי
Why does the verse write
"he shall be impure"?

ש"מ
=שמע מינה
The extra word must teach Rabbi Akiva's rule, that a brother
must
make himself impure for his unmarried sister.

The Gemara will now discuss Rabbi Yishmael's opinion:
ור'
=רבי
ישמעאל איידי דכתב לה כתב נמי יטמא
And Rabbi Yishmael
reasons that
once
the verse writes
"for her", it
continues to write
"he shall be impure,"

לכדתני דבי ר'
=רבי
ישמעאל
Following the
following teaching of the
Academy of Rabbi Yishmael:

דתנא דבי רבי ישמעאל כל פרשה שנאמרה ונישנית לא נישנית אלא בשביל דבר שנתחדש בה
As the Academy of Rabbi Yishmael said that a
full Torah
portion is
often
repeated for a novel
point.

 
"None shall defile himself for any
dead
person among his kin, except for the relatives that are closest to him: his mother, his father, his son, his daughter, and his brother; also for a virgin sister, close to him because she has not married, for her he may defile himself. "
 
 
Opinion "For Her" He May Defile Himself.
Rabbi Yishmael He may defile himself for his unmarried sister -
Rabbi Akiva He
may
defile himself for his unmarried sister
He
must
defile himself for his unmarried sister.
 
 
 
The Gemara will now discuss the third argument between Rabbi Akiva and Rabbi Yishmael:
לעולם בהם תעבודו
"He shall work them forever".

רשות דברי ר'
=רבי
ישמעאל
Rabbi Yishmael
says this verse teaches that one is
permitted
to keep a servant forever,

ר"ע
=רבי עקיבא
אומר חובה
Rabbi Akiva says it's mandatory
to keep a servant forever.

The Gemara Asks:
מאי טעמא דרבי ישמעאל
What's Rabbi Yishmael's reasoning?

The Gemara Answers:
איידי דכתיב לא תחיה כל נשמה
Since
the verse says "don't let a soul live",

איצטריך נמי למיכתב לעולם בהם תעבודו למישרי אחד מכל האומות שבא על הכנענית והוליד ממנה בן שאתה רשאי לקנותו
The verse
must also write "you must work then forever" to permit a son of
a union of a non - Canaanite
man with a Canaanite woman to be bought
as a slave.

דתניא
As a Braisa
taught:

מנין לאחד מן האומות שבא על הכנענית והוליד ממנה בן שאתה רשאי לקנותו בעבד
What
is the source
that one may purchase a son born to a
union of
non - Canaanite man who married a Canaanite woman as a slave?

The Braisa cites two answers:
ת"ל
=תלמוד לומר
וגם מבני התושבים הגרים עמכם מהם תקנו
1. The verse:
"Moreover of the children of the strangers that do sojourn among you, of them may you buy".

The Gemara Asks:
יכול אף הכנעני שבא על אחת מן האומות והוליד ממנה בן שאתה רשאי לקנותו בעבד
Perhaps this teaches that
one is permitted to purchase a servant who
is a result of a union between
a Canaanite
marries a non - Canaanite?

The Gemara Answers:
ת"ל
=תלמוד לומר
אשר הולידו בארצכם
The verse
says "that was born in the land."

מן הנולדים בארצכם ולא מן הגרים בארצכם
One may purchase those who were
born in your land, but not the ones living in your land.

 
This verse discusses a mixed marriage between a Canaanite and a non - Canaanite.
 
The Gemara assumes that a married couple lives in the wife's homeland. Since a non - Jew's nationality in Halacha depends on the father, Canaanites born in "the land" (who are children of Canaanite mothers) aren't real Canaanites, while Canaanites born outside "the land" (born of Canaanite fathers) are true Canaanites.
 
 
 
The Braisa now cites a second source:
ור"ע
=ורבי עקיבא
ממהם תקנו נפקא
2.
Rabbi Akiva learns
this law
from "you will buy from them."

The Gemara Asks:
לעולם בהם תעבודו למה לי
So according to Rabbi Akiva, why does the verse say
"you shall work them forever"?

The Gemara Answers:
לחובה
To teach that there is
an obligation
to keep one's servant forever.

The Gemara now says what does Rabbi Yishmael use the word "From them:"
ורבי ישמעאל בהם ולא באחיכם
Rabbi Yishmael
uses the word
"for them"
to teach that one may work
them
as a slave,
but
one may not work one's
brother
as a slave.

The Gemara Asks:
ור"ע
=ורבי עקיבא
And
from where does
Rabbi Akiva
derive that law?

The Gemara Answers:
באחיכם מסיפא דקרא נפקא
Rabbi Akiva derives it from the word
"brethren":

ובאחיכם בני ישראל איש באחיו לא תרדה בו בפרך
"But over your brethren the children of Israel you shall not rule, one over another, with rigor."

The Gemara Asks:
ור'
=ורבי
ישמעאל
So
what does
Rabbi Yishmael
do with this verse?

The Gemara Answers:
איידי דכתי'
=דכתיב
ובאחיכם כתי'
=כתיב
נמי בהם
Once
the verse
says "and over your brothers", it also
adds the words
"with them."

לכדתני דבי ר'
=רבי
ישמעאל
Following the
following teaching of the
Academy of Rabbi Yishmael:

דתנא דבי רבי ישמעאל כל פרשה שנאמרה ונישנית לא נישנית אלא בשביל דבר שנתחדש בה
As the Academy of Rabbi Yishmael said that a
full Torah
portion is
often
repeated for a novel
point.

 
There are three sources:
 
1.
Such male and female slaves as you may have - it is from the nations round about you that you may acquire male and female slaves.
2.
You may also buy them from among the children of aliens resident among you, or from their families that are among you, whom they begot in your land. These shall become your property:
3.
you may keep them as a possession for your children after you, for them to inherit as property for all time. Such you may treat as slaves. But as for your Israelite kinsmen, no one shall rule ruthlessly over the other.
 
 
Opinion "You May Also Buy Them From Among The Children Of Aliens Resident Among You" "Whom They Begot In Your Land" "Property For All Time" "But As For Your Israelite Kinsmen, No One Shall Rule Ruthlessly Over The Other"
Rabbi Akiva One is permitted to buy a servant Only one who's father was a Canaanite One must not free his servant One must act kindly to his Jewish servant
Rabbi Yishmael One is permitted to buy a servant Only one who's father was a Canaanite One must act kindly to his Jewish servant -
 
Note, none of these laws are applicable (or have been applicable) since Sancheriv's population transfers (over 2500 years ago).
 
 
 
 
The Gemara continues to discuss marriage:
א"ר
=אמר רב
חסדא זנותא בביתא כי קריא לשומשמא
Rav Chisda said that immorality in one's house is as
destructive as
a worm
is
to sesame seeds,

וא"ר
=ואמר רב
חסדא תוקפא בביתא כי קריא לשומשמא
And Rav Chisda
also
said that anger in a house is
as destructive
as a worm
is
to sesame seeds.

אידי ואידי באיתתא אבל בגברא לית לן בה
However,
both
of the above statements
are
only true
about the wife
(The household falls apart if the wife is immoral or angry)
, but not about the husband
(since the wife is in charge of the house, it's up to her to keep the house running. If she is immoral or angry, she stops caring for the household and it falls apart.)

 
 
 
ואמר רב חסדא בתחילה קודם שחטאו ישראל היתה שכינה שורה עם כל אחד ואחד
Rav Chisda
also
said that in the beginning, before the Jewish people sinned
through immorality
, the Divine Presence rested on every single person
in his house,

שנאמר כי ה' אלהיך מתהלך בקרב מחניך
As the verse
says "For the Hashem your G - d walks in the midst of your camp."

כיון שחטאו נסתלקה שכינה מהם
However,
once
the Jews
sinned, the Divine Presence departed from the
house, (as it's unwilling to see the sins frequently done at home),

שנאמר ולא יראה בך ערות דבר ושב מאחריך
As the conclusion of the verse
says "He shall not see an immodest thing in you, and turn away from you."

 
The Maharsha explains that these two teachings are connected. Blessings in the house comes through Hashem's presence. If the family is involved in non-G-dly activities such as anger or immorality, Hashem's presence departs and along with it His blessing.
 
 
 
א"ר
=אמר רב
שמואל בר נחמני א"ר
=אמר רבי
יונתן
Rabbi Shmuel bar Nachmani said in the name of Rabbi Yonasan:

כל העושה מצוה אחת בעוה"ז
=בעולם הזה
ממקדמתו והולכת לפניו לעוה"ב
=לעולם הבה
Whoever does one Mitzvah in this world
will merit to have his Mitzvah
go ahead of him to the World to Come,

 
The Maharsha explains that this refers to the angels created through the performance of this good deed, and they will go ahead to show the way to his reward in the World to Come.
 
 
שנאמר והלך לפניך צדקך
As
the verse
says "And Your righteousness shall go before You."

וכל העובר עבירה אחת בעוה"ז
=בעולם הזה
מלפפתו והולכת לפניו ליום הדין
While whoever commits one sin in in this world
will be punished through
the sin enwrapping itself
around the sinner
and going ahead of him to the World to Come,

 
The Maharsha explains that this refers to the bad angels who have to bring him to his punishment. Unlike the angels showing someone to his reward, these angels must drag the person to his punishment.
 
 
שנאמר ילפתו ארחות דרכם יעלו בתוהו ויאבדו
As
the verse
says "The paths of their way do wind, They go up into the waste, and are lost."

ר"א
=רבי אלעזר
אומר קשורה בו ככלב
Rabbi Elazar said that
the sin
ties itself to
the sinner
like a dog
and is stuck with him even into the next world, proclaiming his sin,

שנאמר ולא שמע אליה לשכב אצלה להיות עמה
As
the verse
close
in a cause and effect relationship
says
regarding Yosef and the wife of Potifar:
"and he did not listen to her to lie with her, to be with her"

 
This verse mentions two things: "To lie with her" and "to be with her". The Gemara interprets it as saying that...
 
 
לשכב אצלה בעולם הזה
If Yosef would
"lie with her" in this world,

להיות עמה לעולם הבא
He will end up
"to be with her" in the World to Come.

 
 
 
תנן התם
It is taught
in a :

שהיה בדין
It would
make sense to say the following logical
inference:

ומה עדות הראשונה שאין אוסרתה איסור עולם אינה מתקיימת בפחות משנים
If the first testimony
(the seclusion),
which does not close
As (if innocent) she can drink the water and return to her married life
permanently forbid
her to her husband,
requires two witnesses,

עדות האחרונה שאוסרתה איסור עולם אינו דין שלא תתקיים בפחות משנים
All the more so should the final testimony
(that is, testimony of actual immorality),
which
does
her
to stay married to her husband,
require two witnesses.

ת"ל
=תלמוד לומר
ועד אין בה
To avoid this inference the verse must
teach "There is no witnesses about her,"

כל שיש בה
Implying that
any witness
is believed.

 
 
 
וק"ו
=וקל וחומר
לעדות הראשונה
But a logical inference can
now
be made back to the "first testimony"
(i.e the seclusion),

מעתה ומה עדות האחרונה שאוסרתה איסור עולם מתקיימת בעד אחד
So now, if a single witness is believed for the "final testimony"
(immorality), which
forbids her
to stay married to her husband,

עדות הראשונה שאין אוסרתה איסור עולם אינו דין שתתקיים בעד אחד
All the more so should the "first testimony"
(seclusion),
(which does not forbid her forever) should not require two witnesses.

ת"ל
=תלמוד לומר
That's why there's a need for a Gezeira Shava of the following two verses which
say:

כי מצא בה ערות דבר
"When one finds a matter of impurity,"

ולהלן הוא אומר על פי שני עדים או על פי שלשה עדים יקום דבר
And
another verse, which says
"on the mouth of two or three witnesses is the matter established."

מה דבר האמור להלן על פי שנים עדים
Just as "the matter"
in the second verse (financial law)
requires two witnesses
to be established as fact,

אף כאן על פי שנים
So too
the marital laws mentioned in the first verse
requires two witnesses.

The Gemara asks:
האי מכי מצא בה ערות דבר נפקא
But is
the law that a single witness isn't believed
derived from
the verse of
"matter of impurity"?

מבה נפקא
We it from the word "in her"!

בה ולא בקינוי
A single witness is believed to testify against
her
- a women who was immoral (after warning and seclusion)
but not
about the
warning,

בה ולא בסתירה
A single witness is believed to testify against
her
- a women who was immoral (after warning and seclusion)
but not
about the
seclusion
itself.

מיבעי ליה
That is how the Mishna should have been phrased!

The Gemara Answers:
 
The Gemara says that the Gezeira Shava teaches another law:
 
 
הכי נמי קאמר
It's true.

 
The Gemara now retracted and says that the above text was unclear. Rather, the true text is:
 
 
תלמוד לומר
We derive
that two witnesses are required for warning and seclusion from:

בה בה ולא בקינוי
One witness is believed about
her
- a women who was immoral after warning and seclusion
but not
about the
warning.

בה ולא בסתירה
One witness is believed about
her
- a women who was immoral after warning and seclusion
but not
about the
seclusion.

 
 
 
וטומאה בעלמא בלא קינוי ובלא סתירה דלא מהימן עד אחד מנלן
But
what is the source that
one witness is not believed about regular immorality (which had neither warning nor
witnessed
seclusion)?

נאמר כאן כי מצא בה ערות דבר
One verse says
"When one will find in her a matter of immorality,"

ונאמר להלן על פי שני עדים או על פי שלשה עדים יקום דבר
And another
verse says:
"the matter will be established through the mouth of two or three witnesses".

מה דבר האמור להלן עדים שנים
Just as there must be two witnesses in the second verse
which (deals with monetary law),

אף כאן עדים שנים
So to
does testimony of
immorality require two witnesses.

 
 
 
תנו רבנן
The Sages taught
in a Braisa:

The Gemara Asks:
אי זו היא עדות הראשונה
What
does the ambiguous term
"the first testimony"
mean?

The Gemara Answers:
זו עדות סתירה
Testimony of seclusion.

The Gemara Asks:
עדות אחרונה
What does the ambiguous term
"the last testimony"
mean?

The Gemara Answers:
זו עדות טומאה
Testimony of immorality.






Translation copyright by the OpenGemara project. If you would like permission to use our data, please contact us

Dedicated in loving memory of Leah Rivka Bas Reb Dovid HaKohen A"H.
Last build: 2019-01-31T02:13:56Z