Dedicate Daf 41a to:



ויקרא בו לפני הרחוב אשר לפני שער המים
"And he read
from the Torah
there before the street that was before the water gate."

אמר רב חסדא בעזרת נשים
Rav Chisda said that
Ezra read from the Torah scroll in the
woman's courtyard
of the Beis Hamikdash .

 
 
 
 
:וקורא אחרי מות ואך בעשור:
And he read " Acharei Mos " and " Ach BaAsor ."

The Gemara Asks:
ורמינהי
But there is a contradiction:

מדלגין בנביא ואין מדלגין בתורה
We
are permitted to skip
when
publicly
reading
from
the prophets, but
we are not allowed to skip
when
publicly
reading the Torah.

The Gemara will cite two answers:
אמר אביי לא קשיא כאן בכדי שיפסוק התורגמן כאן בכדי שלא יפסוק התורגמן
1.
Abaye said that there is no contradiction.
One is not allowed to skip when the pause is long enough
that the translator would finish
reciting the Aramaic translation before the reader has time to roll the Torah to the new location, and one may skip if the
translator does not finish
reciting the translation before the reader rolls the Torah scroll to the new location.

The Gemara Asks:
והא עלה קתני מדלגין בנביא ואין מדלגין בתורה
But it was taught that one may skip
while publicly reciting
the prophets, but one may not skip
when publicly reading from
the Torah,

ועד כמה מדלגין עד כדי שלא יפסוק התורגמן
And how much may one skip
in the Prophets? One may skip as much material as one desires as long as
the translator doesn't have time to finish
reciting the Aramaic translation before the reader is ready to read again,

מכלל דבתורה כלל כלל לא
Which implies that
one may not skip at all
when reading
the Torah!

The Gemara Answers:
אלא אמר אביי לא קשיא כאן בענין אחד כאן בשני עניינין
2.
Rather, Abaye
said that one may skip while reading the Torah only when both portions
are on one topic, while
one may skip while reading from the prophets even when the two portions
are on different topics,

והתניא מדלגין בתורה בענין אחד ובנביא בשני עניינין
And a Braisa teaches that one may skip in the Torah
only to another paragraph on the same
topic but in the prophets
one may skip to a different topic,

וכאן וכאן בכדי שלא יפסוק התורגמן
But one may never skip
enough material the
the translator
finishes
translating
before the Torah scroll is finished being rolled,

ואין מדלגין מנביא לנביא
And one may not skip from prophet to prophet,

ובנביא של שנים עשר מדלגין
But one may skip
to a different
prophet
if they are both one of
the Twelve Prophets.

ובלבד שלא ידלג מסוף הספר לתחילתו
As long as one doesn't skip backwards.

 
 
 
:וגולל את התורה ומניחה בחיקו כו':
He then rolls the Torah and places it on his laps.

 
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
וכל כך למה
Why
must the Kohen Gadol say that the Torah scroll contains more than he read?

The Gemara Answers:
שלא להוציא לעז על ס"ת
So
people won't
suspect
the Torah scroll of being invalid.

 
 
 
:ובעשור שבחומש הפקודים קורא על פה:
And
The Kohen Gadol
reads "In the tenth" which is in Bamidbar by heart.

 
The Gemara will discuss why doesn't the Kohen Gadol read that portion from a scroll:
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
וליכרכיה לספר וליקרי
Why doesn't the
Kohen Gadol
roll the Torah scroll
to Bamidbar
and read it?

The Gemara Answers:
א"ר הונא בר יהודה א"ר ששת לפי שאין גוללין ס"ת בצבור
Rav Huna bar Yehuda said in the name of Rav Sheshes that we don't roll a Torah scroll during
a public
Torah
reading.

 
Because it would be a burden on the congregation to be quiet, waiting for it to be rolled.
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
וליתי ס"ת אחרינא וליקרי
So why doesn't
the Kohen Gadol
read from a
second
Torah scroll?

 
The same way we read take out two Torahs on Rosh Chodesh or Yom Tov ?
 
 
The Gemara will cite two reasons:
רב הונא בר יהודה אמר משום פגמו של ראשון
1.
Rav Huna bar Yehuda said that
bringing another scroll
will impinge
the honor of the first.

 
As the onlookers will notice that the reader switched scrolls and suspect that the scroll is invalid.
 
 
ר"ש בן לקיש אמר לפי שאין מברכין ברכה שאינה צריכה
2.
Rav Shimon ben Lakish said that
bringing another scroll will make the Kohen Gadol make another,
unnecessary, blessing.

The Gemara asks on the first answer:
ומי חיישינן לפגמא
But are we concerned for the lack of honor
due to a Torah scroll?

והאמר רבי יצחק נפחא ר"ח טבת שחל להיות בשבת מביא שלש תורות
But didn't Rabbi Yitzchak Nafcha sat that when Rosh Chodesh Teves falls out on Shabbos, three Torahs are brought out!

וקורא אחת מעניינו של יום ואחת של ר"ח ואחת בשל חנוכה
The
regular Torah portion
is read from the first
scroll
, the portion of Rosh Chodesh is read from the second
scroll
, and the portion of Chanukah is read from the third
scroll.

 
The same way the onlooker will notice and suspect the first and second scroll of being invalid.
 
 
The Gemara Answers:
תלתא גברי בתלתא סיפרי ליכא פגמא
The Torah scroll is not
impinged when three people
read from
three different scrolls,

חד גברא בתרי סיפרי איכא פגמא
But
one person
reading from
two
Torah
scrolls does impinge
the honor of the Torah scroll.

 
 
 
:\ומברך עליה שמנה ברכות כו':
And
the Kohen Gadol
makes eight blessings.

 
 
 
ת"ר
The Sages taught:

מברכין
על התורה כדרך שמברכין בבהכ"נ
The Kohen Gadol
makes the regular blessing on the Torah,

ועל העבודה
And
he makes a blessing
on the service,

ועל ההודאה
And Modim,

ועל מחילת עון כתיקנן
And for forgiveness of sin,

על המקדש בפני עצמו
And for the Beis Hamikdash ,

ועל הכהנים בפני עצמן
And
a separate blessing
for the Kohanim,

על ישראל בפני עצמן
A separate blessing
for the
regular
Jews,

ועל ירושלים בפני עצמה
A separate blessing
for Yerushalayim.

 
 
 
:והשאר תפלה:
And the rest is prayer.

 
 
 
ת"ר
The Sages taught:

השאר תפלה תחנה רנה ובקשה שעמך ישראל צריכין ליוושע
The rest
is a
prayer, supplication, song and request that the Jewish people need deliverance,

וחותם בשומע תפלה
And
the Kohen Gadol
finishes
the prayer
with "Who listens to prayer."

מכאן ואילך כל אחד ואחד מביא ספר תורה מתוך ביתו וקורא בו
Then, everyone brought a Torah scroll from his house and read from it.

The Gemara Asks:
וכל כך למה
Why did everyone bring
their private Torah scroll?

כדי להראות חזותו לרבים:
To show
the Torah scroll's
beauty to the public.

 
 
 
 

Mishna
The Mishna asks:
פרשת המלך כיצד
How was the King's
Hakhel Torah reading performed?

The Mishna answers:
מוצאי יו"ט הראשון של חג בשמיני במוצאי שביעית עושין לו בימה של עץ בעזרה
The night after the first Yom Tov of Sukkos, on the eighth year (
which is the year
after the Shmita), a wooden platform was erected in the Courtyard
of the Beis Hamikdash ,

והוא יושב עליה
And the King would sit on it,

שנאמר מקץ שבע שנים במועד וגו
As
the verse
says "At the end of seven years, in the time ... "

 
Like on Yom Kippur ,
 
 
חזן הכנסת נוטל ס"ת ונותנה לראש הכנסת
The Gabbai of the synagogue takes the Torah scroll and passes it to the head of the congregation,

וראש הכנסת נותנה לסגן
And the head of the synagogue passes it to the vice
Kohen Gadol ,

והסגן נותנה לכהן גדול
And the vice
Kohen Gadol
passes it to the Kohen Gadol ,

וכ"ג נותנה למלך
And the Kohen Gadol passes it to the king,

והמלך עומד ומקבל וקורא יושב
And the King would arise, receive
the Torah scroll
, and read from it while sitting.

 
Parenthetically, the Mishna recounts a story of how Agrippas performed the Hakhel:
 
 
אגריפס המלך עמד וקבל וקרא עומד ושבחוהו חכמים
Agrippas stood up, received the
Torah scroll
, and read from it standing.

וכשהגיע ללא תוכל לתת עליך איש נכרי זלגו עיניו דמעות
When
Agrippas
read the words "You may not put a foreigner over you" his eyes teared,

 
Since he was a descendant of Herod, who was not a legitimate king, since he was a slave ("a foreigner" and not a "brother").
 
 
אמרו לו אל תתירא אגריפס אחינו אתה אחינו אתה
The people
responded "Don't be afraid, you are our brother, you are our brother".

וקורא מתחילת אלה הדברים עד שמע
The King would
read from
the beginning of the book of
Devarim until Shema,

ושמע והיה אם שמוע עשר תעשר כי תכלה לעשר ופרשת המלך וברכות וקללות עד שגומר כל הפרשה
And the king would close
The king was permitted to skip around when reading the Torah.
read
Shema, VeHaya Im Shamoa , "Tithe you shall surely tithe", "When you made an end of tithing", The
Torah
portion pertaining the the King, the blessings and the curses
said on Mt. Grizim and Mt. Eival
, and finishes the portion.

ברכות שכהן גדול מברך אותן המלך מברך אותן
The king made the same blessings
after he reads from the Torah
as the Kohen Gadol ,

אלא שנותן של רגלים תחת מחילת העון:
But he
replaced the blessing
of "forgiveness of sin" with a
blessing
about the festival
(Since it's not Yom Kippur ).

 
 
 
 
Gemara
The Gemara Asks:
בשמיני סלקא דעתך
On the Eight?

 
Which implies that it's the eighth
day
of Sukkos! But the Mishna says that it was on the first day of Chol Hamoed !
 
 
The Gemara Answers:
אימא בשמינית
Rather, on the eighth
year - that is, the year after Shmita.

The Gemara Asks:
וכל הני למה לי
Why
are all these dates
necessary?

 
The verse says "At the end of seven years, during the holiday, the year of the Shmita, in the festival of Sukkos When all of Israel come to appear before Hashem your G - d in the place that He shall choose."
 
 
The Gemara Answers:
צריכי
They are necessary:

דאי כתב רחמנא מקץ הוה אמינא נימנו מהשתא ואע"ג דלא מתרמי בשמיטה כתב רחמנא שמיטה
For
had the Torah
said only
"at the end
of the seventh year",
one could have thought that
Hakhel happens every eight years from when Moshe taught this law, but not on the eighth year as in the year
after Shmita.

ואי כתב רחמנא שמיטה ה"א בסוף שמיטה כתב רחמנא במועד
Had the Torah said
only
"Shmita", one could have thought that
Hakhel should take place
at the end of Shmita
(during the summer).

ואי כתב במועד ה"א מריש שתא כתב רחמנא בחג הסוכות
Had
the Torah
said
only
"On Yom Tov ", one could have thought that
Hakhel should take place
at the beginning
of the year (on Rosh Hashana ).

ואי כתב רחמנא בחג הסוכות הוה אמינא אפי' יו"ט אחרון
Had
the Torah
said
only
"On Sukkos", one could have thought that
Hakhel should take place
on
Shmini Atzeres.

כתב רחמנא בבוא כל ישראל
The verse says
"When all the Jews come."






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Dedicated in loving memory of Leah Rivka Bas Reb Dovid HaKohen A"H.
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