Dedicate Daf 42b to:



The Gemara Answers:
שמעו דברי מערכי המלחמה וחזרו
Listen to what the
officers have to say about those
who must return
from battle.

The Gemara Asks:
במלחמה מה הוא
What does
the Kohen anointed for battle say before the
battle
itself?

The Gemara Answers:
אומר אל ירך לבבכם אל תיראו ואל תחפזו ואל תערצו
"Let not your heart faint; fear not, nor be alarmed, nor be frightened of them."

כנגד ארבעה דברים שעובדי כוכבים עושין מגיפין ומריעין צווחין ורומסין
These
four clauses
parallel
the four methods
the non-Jewish
armies would inspire fear:
clanging
their shields,
blowing
their trumpets,
screaming, and neighing
their horses.

 
 
 
 
:פלשתים באו בנצחונו של גלית כו':
The Plishtim came with the strength of Golias.

The Gemara will now discuss Golias:
 
This story is discussed in Shmuel (One 17:1). After Shaul failed to kill Agag, the king of Amalek, Hashem told Shmuel to anoint Dovid as king, and removed His holy spirit from Shaul. Sensing this, the Pelishtim, age - old enemies of the Jews, decided to wage war.
 
The Navi says:
The Philistines assembled their camps for war, .... Shaul and the men of Israel gathered and camped in the Eiloh Valley; they drew up their lines for war against the Philistines. The Philistines were standing on the mountain on one side and Israel was standing on the mountain on the other side, with the valley between them. A champion came out from the Philistine camps, whose name was Golias of Gas; he was six and a half cubits tall ... He stood and called out to the battalions of Israel and said to them, "Why should you go out to wage war? Am I not the Philistine, and you, the servants of Shaul? Choose for yourselves a man and let him come down to me. If he will be able to fight me and kill me, then we will become your slaves; but if I defeat him and kill him, then you will become our slaves and you shall serve us." ... Dovid was the son of this Ephrathite man from Beis Lechem in Yehuda ... The Philistine would approach Israel's battalion and stand there early in the morning and evening, for forty days. Yishai said to his son Dovid, "Please take to your brothers this eiphah of toasted grain and ten loaves of this bread, and hurry to the camp, to your brothers. And bring these ten cheeses to the captain of the thousand; also, inquire into your brothers' welfare and take the tidings of their welfare." ... Dovid rose early in the morning, left the sheep with a watchman, and started out and went as Yishai had commanded him; he came to the barricade as the troops were going out to the front, shouting battle cries ... Dovid ... took his staff in his hand and picked out five smooth stones from the brook and put them in his shepherd's bag, in his pouch, and his sling was in his hand; he then approached the Philistine. The Philistine approached, going closer and closer to Dovid, and the man carrying his shield was in front of him. The Philistine looked and he saw Dovid, and he scorned him, for he was a youth, with a reddish complexion and handsome. The Philistine said to Dovid, "Am I a dog that you come after me with sticks?" and the Philistine cursed Dovid by his god. The Philistine said to Dovid, "Come to me, and I will offer your flesh to the birds of the heavens and to the beasts of the field." Dovid said to the Philistine, "You come to me with a sword, a spear, and a javelin; but I come to you with the Name of Hashem of Hosts, the G - d of the battalions of Israel Whom you have blasphemed. On this day Hashem will deliver you into my hand and I will kill you and I will remove your head; I will offer the carcasses of the Philistine camp this day to the birds of the heavens and to the beasts of earth. Then the whole earth's inhabitants will know that Israel has a God. And this entire community will know that not with a sword or a spear that Hashem saves; for unto Hashem is the outcome of battle, and He will deliver you into our hand." As the Philistine rose and moved closer towards Dovid, Dovid hurried and ran to the line, towards the Philistine. Dovid reached into the bag, took a stone from there and slung it, and struck the Philistine in the forehead; the stone penetrated his forehead, and he fell face down upon the ground. Thus Dovid overpowered the Philistine with the sling and stone; he smote the Philistine and killed him, though there was no sword in Dovid's hand. Dovid ran and stood by the Philistine; he took his Golias' sword, drew it out of its sheath, and killed him, and cut off his head with it. The Philistines saw that their hero was dead, and they fled. The men of Israel and Yehuda rose up, and shouted triumphantly, and pursued the Philistines until the approach to the valley and to the gates of Ekron ; Philistine corpses were strewn along the road to Shaarayim , up to Gas and Ekron . The children of Israel returned from pursuing the Philistines, and they plundered their camp. Dovid took the head of the Philistine and brought it to Yerushalayim, and his weapons he put in his tent.
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
גלית
Why was he called
Golias?

The Gemara Answers:
אמר רבי יוחנן שעמד בגילוי פנים לפני הקב"ה
הקדוש ברוך הוא
Rabbi Yochanan said that
he got that name since
he stood brazenly
(lit. "Revealed ( Gilui ) face")
in front of Hashem,

שנאמר ברו לכם איש וירד אלי
As the verse
says "choose you a man for you, and let him come down to me."

ואין איש אלא הקב"ה
הקדוש ברוך הוא
שנא' ה'
השם
איש מלחמה
And
the word
"A man" refers to Hashem, as
the verse
says "Hashem is a man of war."

אמר הקב"ה
הקדוש ברוך הוא
הריני מפילו על יד בן איש
Hashem said
that as a punishment for this Chutzpa, Golias will have
his downfall through a "son of a man,"

שנא'
שנאמר
ודוד בן איש אפרתי הזה
As
the verse says about Dovid
"Now Dovid was the son of that Efrat man."

 
 
 
א"ר
אמר רבי
יוחנן משום רבי מאיר בשלשה מקומות לכדו פיו לאותו רשע
Rabbi Yochanan said that
Golias'
mouth tripped itself in three places:

 
His own words caused his downfall.
 
 
אחד ברו לכם איש וירד אלי
1. Golias said
"choose you a man for you, and let him come down to me."

 
Which implies that his opponent would be victorious.
 
 
ואידך אם יוכל להלחם אתי והכני וגו'
2. Golias said
"If he be able to fight with me, and kill me."

ואידך דקאמר ליה לדוד הכלב אנכי כי אתה בא אלי במקלות
3. Golias
told Dovid "Am I a dog, that you come on me with staves?"

The Gemara Asks:
דוד נמי אמר ליה אתה בא אלי בחרב בחנית ובכידון
But
did not
Dovid also say "you come on me with a sword, and with a spear, and with a javelin?"

 
Which implies that Dovid's opponent would come out victorious. Why did his words not cause his downfall?
 
 
The Gemara Answers:
הדר אמר ליה ואנכי בא אליך בשם ה'
השם
צבאות אלהי (ישראל) מערכות ישראל אשר חרפת
Dovid finished off with
"but I come to you in the name of Hashem, G - d of Hosts, the G - d of the armies of Israel whom you taunted."

 
Which means that Dovid never meant that the other side would be victorious. Rather, what he said was that his opponent will attack him with worthless weapons, while Dovid comes with Hashem's might.
 
 
ויגש הפלשתי השכם והערב
"And the Philistine drew near morning and evening."

אמר ר'
רבי
יוחנן כדי לבטלן מק"ש
מקרית שמע
שחרית וערבית
Rabbi Yochanan
said the Golias taunted the Jews morning and night
to prevent
the Jews
from saying the morning and night Shema.

 
 
 
ויתיצב ארבעים יום
"And presented himself forty days."

א"ר
אמר רבי
יוחנן כנגד ארבעים יום שנתנה בהן תורה
Rabbi Yochanan said that
Golias' taunted the Jews
for the amount of time as it took to receive the Torah.

 
 
 
ויצא איש הבינים ממחנות פלשתים וגו'
"And there went out a champion
("middle man")
from the camp of the Philistines."

The Gemara Asks:
מאי בינים
What does
the word
" Beinaim "
mean?

The Gemara cites three answers:
אמר רב שמבונה מכל מום
1.
Rav said that
it means the Golias was free from blemish.

ושמואל אמר בינוני שבאחיו
2.
Shmuel
said that it means that Golias
was the average
( Bein could mean "between")
of his
(four)
brothers.

דבי רבי שילא אמר שהוא עשוי כבנין
3.
The academy of Rav Shila
said that it means that Golias was as strong
as a building
( Bein could come from the word "building" - Binyan ).

 
 
 
The Gemara will now discuss how everyone had relations with Golias' mother:
רבי יוחנן אמר בר מאה פפי וחדא נאנאי
Rav Yochanan said that
the word means that Golias was the son of
a hundred
adulterers
and one father.

וגלית שמו מגת
"And his name was Golias from Gat "

תני רב יוסף שהכל דשין את אמו כגת
Rav Yosef said
that he was called "from Gat " since
everyone pressed his mother like a press.

 
 
 
כתיב מערות וקרינן מערכות
The word "ranks" in the verse "out of the ranks of the Philistines" is written as
MeAros
but is read as
MeArchos

תני רב יוסף שהכל הערו באמו
Rav Yosef taught
that the verse teaches that
everyone had relations with
Golias'
mother.

 
 
 
כתיב הרפה וכתיב ערפה
One verse calls Golias' mother
" Harpa ",
while another calls her
" Orpah ."

רב ושמואל
There is an argument between
Rav and Shmuel
about the meaning of this verse:

חד אמר הרפה שמה ולמה נקרא שמה ערפה שהכל עורפין אותה מאחריה
One said that
Golias' mother's name was
Horpah , but
the verse calls her
Orpah since all would have relations with her back,

וחד אמר ערפה שמה ולמה נקרא שמה הרפה שהכל דשין אותה כהריפות
while the other
said that
Golias' mother's name was
Orpah , but
the verse calls her
Horpah since all would press on her
(while having relations)
like groats.

וכן הוא אומר ותקח האשה ותפרוש המסך על פני הבאר ותשטח עליה הריפות
And so too
the verse
says "And the woman took and spread the covering over the well's mouth, and strewed groats thereon"

ואי בעית אימא מהכא
Or
another source that the word " Harifos " may be used as groats:

אם תכתש את האויל במכתש בתוך הריפות בעלי
"Though you should press a fool in a mortar with a pestle among groats."

 
 
 
The Gemara will now discuss another war Dovid fought with the Pelishtim:
 
The Navi (Shmuel 2 Chapter 21) says that towards the end of Dovid's life, the Pelishtim went to war against the Jews. Dovid went to war against them himself and ended up in
another
one on one battle against their hero, named Yishbi of Nov.
 
The verse says:
There was another war of the Pelishtim with Israel. Dovid and his servants went down and waged war against the Pelishtim and Dovid became exhausted. Yishbi Benov , who was one of children of the giant and who had a spear case weighing three hundred bronze weights and who was armed with a new sword, said he was going to kill Dovid. Avishai , the son Tsruyoh
came
to his aid, and struck the Peleshti and killed him. At that time, Dovid's men swore to him saying, "You shall no longer go out to war with us so that the light of Israel not become extinguished. Afterwards, there was more war with the Pelishtim in Gov. At that time, Sivkai the Chushosi struck down Sof , who was one of the giant's children. There was more war with the Pelishtim in Gov. and Elchanan, the son of Yari whose family were weavers in Beis Lechem , struck down Golias the Gitite , the wood part of his spear was like that of the weaver's rod. There was another war in Gas and there was a giant man whose fingers and toes numbered six each for a total number of twenty - four. He also was a child of Horpah's . He cursed Israel and Yonasan killed him,
Yonasan was
the son of Shimi , Dovid's brother. These four giants were born to Horpah in Gas and they eventually fell into the hands of Dovid and in the hands of his servants.
 
 
ואת ארבעת אלה יולדו להרפה בגת ויפלו ביד דוד וביד עבדיו
"These four were born to the Horpah in Gat and they fell by the hand of Dovid, and by the hand of his servants."

The Gemara Asks:
מאי נינהו
Who
were these four?

The Gemara Answers:
אמר רב חסדא סף ומדון גלית וישבי בנוב
Rav Chisda said
that they are
Saf , Madun , Golias, and Yishbi of Nov .

ויפלו ביד דוד וביד עבדיו דכתיב ותשק ערפה לחמותה ורות דבקה בה
And they fell to Dovid and his servants, as
the verse says
"And they lifted up their voice, and wept again; and Orpah kissed her mother-in-law ; but Ruth cleaved unto her,"

אמר רבי יצחק אמר הקדוש ברוך הוא יבואו בני הנשוקה ויפלו ביד בני הדבוקה
Rabbi Yitzchak said that Hashem proclaimed "Let the children of the kissed fall into the hands of the
descendants
of the cleaved."

 
Dovid was a descendant of Ruth, while Golias and his brothers were descendants of Orpah .
 
 
דרש רבא בשכר ארבע דמעות שהורידה ערפה על חמותה זכתה ויצאו ממנה ארבעה גבורים
Rava expounded that Orpah merited four mighty
warriors
in the merit of her four tears
she shed
for her mother-in-law ,

שנאמר ותשאנה קולן ותבכינה עוד
As
the verse
says "they lifted up their voice, and wept again."

 
She cried twice, and she shed two tears (one per eye) per cry. So she shed four tears.
 
 
כתיב חץ חניתו וקרינן עץ חניתו
The verse writes
"the arrows of whose spear",
while it is read
"the staff of whose spear."

אמר רבי אלעזר עדיין לא הגיענו לחצי שבחו של אותו רשע
Rabbi Elazar
said that the verse writes " Chetz " as it wants to teach that it
didn't cover half of
Golias'
might.

מכאן שאסור לספר בשבחן של רשעים
And
this verse also teaches
that one is not allowed to praise the evil.

The Gemara Asks:
ולא לפתח ביה כלל
So why does
the verse mention
Golias' might
at all?

The Gemara Answers:
לאודועי שבחיה דדוד:
To teach
Dovid's strength.

 
That he was successful at vanquishing such a great warrior.
 
 
 
בני עמון באו בנצחונו של שובך כו':
The children of Amon came with Shuvach's power.

The Gemara Asks:
כתיב שובך וכתיב שופך
In Shmuel, his name is spelled
"Shuvach" and
in Divrei Hayamim , his name is spelled
" Shofech ."

 
Why is the name changed?
 
 
The Gemara Answers:
רב ושמואל
There is an argument between
Rav and Shmuel
about the meaning behind the different spelling:

חד אמר שופך שמו ולמה נקרא שמו שובך שעשוי כשובך
One said that
his real name
is Shofach ,
but it's spelled
"Shuvach" since he was built like a dovecote,

וחד אמר שובך שמו ולמה נקרא שמו שופך שכל הרואה אותו נשפך לפניו כקיתון
And the other
said
that his real
name was "Shuvach",
but it's spelled
" Shufach " since the intestines of all who saw him would spill
as from a bottle.

 
 
 
אשפתו כקבר פתוח כולם גבורים
" close
Nevuchadnetzar's soldiers.
Their quiver is an open grave, They are all mighty men."

רב ושמואל
There is an argument between
Rav and Shmuel
about the meaning of this verse:

ואמרי לה רבי אמי ורבי אסי
(
Some say
that the argument is between
Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Assi
):

חד אמר בשעה שזורקין חץ עושין אשפתות אשפתות של חללים
One said that when they would shoot arrows, they would make piles and piles of corpses,

ושמא תאמר שאומנין בקרב ת"ל כולם גבורים
And this wasn't just through
their effectiveness in battle,
as the verse says
"they are all mighty men."

וחד אמר בשעה שעושין צורכיהן עושין אשפתות אשפתות של זבל
And the other explanation is that when
they would
excrete,
they would make piles and piles of dung,

ושמא תאמר מפני שחולי מעיים הם תלמוד לומר כולם גבורים
And it wasn't due to
intestinal disease,
as the verse says
"they are all mighty men."

אמר רב מרי שמע מינה האי מאן דנפיש זיבליה חולי מעיים הוא
Rav Mari said that one can derive from this that one who excretes too much excrement must have an intestinal illness.

The Gemara Asks:
למאי נפקא מינה
What difference
does it make if one has intestinal illness or not?

The Gemara Answers:
ליטרח בנפשיה
One should take medicine before the illness gets too strong.

 
 
 
דאגה בלב איש ישחנה
"Worry in the heart of a man bow it down."

ר' אמי ורבי אסי
There is an argument between
Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Assi
about the meaning of this verse:

חד אמר ישחנה מדעתו
One said
that the verse means that one should
not think
about his worries,

 
So he'll be able to learn Torah in peace, which will make him happy and not worried.
 
 
וחד אמר ישיחנה לאחרים:
And the other
said
that the verse means that one should
tell
his worries
to others.

 
So they'll give him advice.
 
 
 
:ואתם אי אתם כן כו':
But you are not so.

 
 
 
וכל כך למה מפני שהשם וכל כינויו
Why? Because Hashem and all his names






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