Dedicate Daf 43a to:



מונחין בארון
Are placed in the Aron,

וכן הוא אומר וישלח אותם משה אלף למטה לצבא אותם ואת פינחס
As
the verse
says "And Moshe sent them, a thousand of every tribe, to the war, them and Pinchas
the son of Elazar the Kohen, to the army, with the holy vessels and the trumpets in his hand
."

 
The Gemara will now discuss the items mentioned in the verse:
 
 
אותם אלו סנהדרין
"Them" are the Sanhedrin,

פינחס זה משוח מלחמה
Pinchas was
the Kohen
anointed for war,

וכלי הקודש זה ארון ולוחות שבו
"The holy vessels" are the Aron and the Luchos,

וחצוצרות התרועה אלו השופרות
And "The trumpets" are the trumpets.

The Gemara will now discuss the war Pinchas waged against Midian:
תנא לא לחנם הלך פינחס למלחמה אלא ליפרע דין אבי אמו
A Braisa
taught that Pinchas went to war to avenge his
grandfather (
his mother's father
),

שנאמר והמדנים מכרו אותו אל מצרים וגו'
As the verse
says "And the Midianites sold him
(Yosef)
to Egypt."

The Gemara Asks:
למימרא דפינחס מיוסף אתי
But was Pinchas
a descendant of
Yosef?

והא כתיב ואלעזר בן אהרן לקח לו מבנות פוטיאל לו לאשה
But
the verse says
"And Elazar (Aharon's) son took one of the daughters of Putiel as a wife."

 
And Pinchas was Elazar's son.
 
 
מאי לאו דאתי מיתרו שפיטם עגלים לעבודת כוכבים
And Putiel was
Yisro who fattened calves
to offer them up as
idolatrous
sacrifices?

 
So Pinchas was a son of Elazar (a descendant of Levi) and Yisro (a convert), how could he be a descendant of Yosef?
Pinchas'  Genealogy
 
 
The Gemara Answers:
לא מיוסף שפיטפט ביצרו
No,
Putiel was
Yosef, who conquered his evil inclination
by not sinning with Potifar's wife.

 
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
והלא שבטים מבזין אותו ראיתם בן פוטי זה בן שפיטם אבי אמו עגלים לעבודת כוכבים יהרוג נשיא מישראל
But
didn't everyone condemn his killing of Zimri saying
"How could this
man
, who's grandfather fattened calfs
(to offer them up as idolatrous sacrifices)
kill a Jewish prince?"

 
So Pinchas was a descendant of Yisro (and Levi), bringing back the question. If he was a child of a Levite and a convert, how could he be a descendant of Yosef?
 
 
The Gemara Answers:
אלא אי אבוה דאימיה מיוסף אימיה דאימיה מיתרו
Rather, if his mother's father was
a descendant of
Yosef, his mother's mother
was a descendant of
Yisro,

 
Pinchas'  Genealogy
 
 
ואי אימיה דאימיה מיוסף אבוה דאימיה מיתרו
And if his mother's mother
was a descendant of
Yosef, his mother's father
was a descendant
of Yisro.

דיקא נמי דכתיב מבנות פוטיאל תרי משמע שמע מינה
One can
also derive
that there were
two
Putiels from the way the verse describes him as being a son of
"The daughters of Put
i
el
and not Putel ."

 
Pinchas'  Genealogy
 
 

Mishna
The Mishna continues to discuss the pre-battle speech delivered by the officers:
 
After the Kohen finishes the speech (mentioned in the previous Mishna), the officers say: "Then the Kohanim shall say to the officers and the officers shall speak to the people, saying: Who is the man that has built a new house and has not inhabited it? Let him go and return to his house, lest he die in the war and another man inhabit it. And who is the man that has planted a vineyard and not redeemed it in the fourth year? Let him go and return to his house, lest he die in the war and another man redeem it. And who is the man who has betrothed a woman and not taken her? Let him go and return to his house, lest he die in the war, and another man take her. Then the officers shall add to the words of the Kohanim to speak to the people, and they shall say: Who is the man that fears, and that is faint of heart? Let him go and return to his house and not melt the heart of his brothers as his own heart."
 
 
ודברו השוטרים אל העם לאמר מי האיש אשר בנה בית חדש ולא חנכו ילך וישוב לביתו וגו'
"And the officers shall speak to the people, saying: 'Whoever has built a new house, and has not dedicated it? Let him go and return to his house.'"

 
 
 
אחד הבונה בית התבן בית הבקר בית העצים בית האוצרות אחד הבונה ואחד הלוקח ואחד היורש ואחד שנתן לו מתנה
One may return from the front even if
one built a house
to store
straw, cattle, wood or produce.
Whether
one built it, bought it, inherited it, or received it as a gift,
he may return home from the front.

 
 
 
ומי האיש אשר נטע כרם ולא חללו וגו'
"And whoever has planted a vineyard, and has not redeemed it..."

אחד הנוטע כרם ואחד הנוטע חמשה אילני מאכל ואפילו מחמשת המינין אחד הנוטע ואחד המבריך ואחד המרכיב ואחד הלוקח ואחד היורש ואחד שנתן לו מתנה
One may return from the front even if
one planted a vineyard or
just
five fruit trees, even if each
tree came from a
different species.
Whether
one planted it, layered it, grafted it,
whether one
planted it or inherited it,
he may return home from the front.

 
Five  Fruit  Trees
 
 
ומי האיש אשר ארש אשה וגו'
"And what man is there that has betrothed a wife."

אחד המארס את הבתולה ואחד המארס את האלמנה אפי' שומרת יבם ואפי' שמע שמת אחיו במלחמה חוזר ובא לו
One may return home from the font
whether one betrothed a virgin or a widow. Even if one has
to perform
Yibum, and even if one brother passed away in battle
(so any one of the brothers may perform Yibum),
he may return home from battle.

כל אלו ואלו שומעין דברי כהן מערכי מלחמה וחוזרין ומספקין מים ומזון ומתקנין את הדרכים
These
(the one who built a house, planted a vineyard or was betrothed)
listen to the Kohen
anointed for battle
and would return
from the front, but would still have to
provide food and drink to the soldiers, and fix
whatever
roads
the army needs.

 
 
 
ואלו שאינן חוזרין
The following
five are not exempt from battle:

הבונה בית שער אכסדרה ומרפסת
1.
One who builds a gate, colonnade or a porch,

הנוטע ארבע אילני מאכל וחמשה אילני סרק
2.
One who plants four fruit trees or
even
five non - fruit trees,

המחזיר את גרושתו
3.
One who remarries his divorcee,

אלמנה לכהן גדול גרושה וחלוצה לכהן הדיוט
4.
A Kohen Gadol who married a widow, or a regular Kohen who married a Chalutza or a divorcee,

ממזרת ונתינה לישראל בת ישראל לממזר ולנתין לא היה חוזר
5.
A Mamzer or a Nasin who married a Jew. All these
must stay in battle.

רבי יהודה אומר אף הבונה בית על מכונו לא היה חוזר
Rabbi Yehuda said that one who rebuilds his house
is not exempt.

ר'
רבי
אליעזר אומר אף הבונה בית לבינים בשרון לא היה חוזר
Rabbi Eliezer also said that one who builds a brick house in the Sharon
is not exempt.

 
Since the buildings tend to collapse there.
 
 
אלו שאין זזין ממקומן
The following
three
people
stay at home (and don't have to even help the army's logistics):

בנה בית וחנכו
1.
One who built his house, inaugurated it,
but didn't live in it yet,

נטע כרם וחללו
2.
One who planted a vineyard and close
After three years when one's vineyard is forbidden, on the fourth year one has to take the fruit to Yerushalayim and eat it there, or redeem it on money and use the money on food in Yerushalayim
redeemed it,
but the vineyard is less than five years old (so he didn't eat of it at peace),

הנושא את ארוסתו הכונס את יבמתו
3.
One who married his betrothed, or performed Yibum,

שנא'
שנאמר
נקי יהיה לביתו שנה אחת
As the verse
says "he shall be free for his house one year,
and shall cheer his wife whom he has taken.
"

לביתו זה ביתו
"For his house"
- His wife
,

יהיה זה כרמו
"Shall"
- his
vineyard,

ושמח את אשתו זו אשתו אשר לקח להביא את יבמתו
"And shall cheer his wife whom he has taken"
- his
Yevamah

אין מספיקין (להם) מים ומזון ואין מתקנין את הדרכים:
These
may not even
supply food and drink, and don't
have to
fix
the army's
roads.

 
 
 
Gemara
תנו רבנן
The Sages taught:

ודברו השוטרים
"And the officers shall speak."

יכול דברים של עצמן
One
may think
that the
officers give the speech
on their own
without the Kohen's prompting,

כשהוא אומר ויספו השוטרים הרי דברים של עצמן אמור
The verse
says "And the officers shall speak further unto the people"
(only
this
speech is without prompting).

הא מה אני מקיים ודברו השוטרים בדברי משוח מלחמה הכתוב מדבר
So
the first verse must teach
that the officers
repeat
the words of the
Kohen
anointed for war.

הא כיצד
How
was the speech performed?

כהן מדבר ושוטר משמיע
The Kohen would speak and the officer would
amplify the sound.

The Gemara notes a contradiction between the following three Braisas:
תני חדא כהן מדבר ושוטר משמיע
1.
The Kohen speaks and the officer would amplify.

ותניא אידך כהן מדבר וכהן משמיע
2.
The Kohen speaks and the
Kohen
would amplify,

ותניא אידך שוטר מדבר ושוטר משמיע
3.
The
officer
speaks and the
officer
would amplify.

The Gemara Answers:
 
The Gemara answers that there were three speeches:
 
 
אמר אביי הא כיצד מונגש ועד ודברו כהן מדבר וכהן משמיע מודברו עד ויספו כהן מדבר ושוטר משמיע מויספו ואילך שוטר מדבר ושוטר משמיע:
Abaye said that
the first speech would be said
by the Kohen and amplified by the Kohen,
the second speech would be said
by the Kohen and amplified by the officer, and
the third speech would be said
by the officer and amplified by the officer.

 
 
 
 
:מי האיש אשר בנה בית חדש כו':
Who is the man who built a new house...

תנו רבנן
The Sages taught
in a Braisa:

The Gemara Asks:
אשר בנה אין לי אלא אשר בנה
"Who built" only includes one who built
a house,

לקח וירש וניתן לו במתנה מנין
What
is the source that even one who
inherits or receives
a house
as a gift
does not go to war?

The Gemara Answers:
ת"ל
תלמוד לומר
מי האיש אשר בנה
The verse
"Who is the man which built."

The Gemara Asks:
בית אין לי אלא בית
"A house"
only includes a regular
house,

מנין לרבות בית התבן ובית הבקר ובית העצים ובית האוצרות
What
is the source that one who built a
house for straw, cattle, wood, or storage
is also exempt from battle?

The Gemara Answers:
ת"ל
תלמוד לומר
אשר בנה מכל מקום
The verse says
"Who built"
anything.

The Gemara Asks:
יכול שאני מרבה אף הבונה בית שער אכסדרה ומרפסת
If so,
one may think
that one who built
a gate - house, colonnade or porch
should also be exempt from battle.

The Gemara Asks:
תלמוד לומר בית
The verse says
"House",
teaching that ...

מה בית הראוי לדירה אף כל הראוי לדירה
Just as a house
is a place
where
people
can dwell, so too
is one exempt only upon building houses
where one can dwell.

ר'
רבי
אליעזר בן יעקב אומר בית כמשמעו
Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaakov said that
the word
"house" is literal,

לא חנך ולא חנכו פרט לגזלן
He
did not inaugurate
his house
, to exclude a thief
who stole a house. So the verse teaches that a thief is not exempt from battle.

The Gemara Asks:
לימא דלא כרבי יוסי הגלילי
Does this opinion not follow Rabbi Yossi HaGalili?

דאי רבי יוסי הגלילי הא אמר ורך הלבב זה המתיירא
For Rabbi Yossi HaGalili said that "the fearful and faint - hearted" is one who is in fear
...






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Dedicated in loving memory of Leah Rivka Bas Reb Dovid HaKohen A"H.
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