Dedicate Daf 43b to:



מעבירות שבידו
From the sins in his hands.

 
How could a thief not be exempt from battle? He's a sinner who should be exempt for being "scared"?
 
 
The Gemara Answers:
אפילו תימא רבי יוסי הגלילי כגון דעבד תשובה ויהב דמי
This Mishna can agree with the exposition of Rabbi Yossi HaGalili, as if the thief
repented (by returning the financial
worth of the house to the original owner), he's not a sinner anymore and can be drafted.

The Gemara Asks:
אי הכי הוה ליה לוקח וליהדר
If
the thief payed restitution,
then
the theft should be considered a
purchase
(and the thief should be exempt from battle as one who purchased a new house)?

The Gemara Answers:
כיון דמעיקרא בתורת גזילה אתא לידיה לא:
He is
not
exempt from battle
since he obtained
the house
illegally.

 
 
 
 
ומי האיש אשר נטע כרם כו':
"And what man is there that has planted a vineyard"

 
 
 
תנו רבנן
The Sages taught:

אשר נטע אין לי אלא נטע
The word
"that has planted"
only includes literal
planting.

 
So only one who
planted
a vineyard is exempt from serving.
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
לקח וירש וניתן לו במתנה מנין
What
is the source
that one who bought
a vineyard
or received
a vineyard
as a gift
is exempt from the army?

The Gemara Answers:
תלמוד לומר ומי האיש אשר נטע
The verse says
"Who is the man was has planted."

The Gemara Asks:
כרם אין לי אלא כרם
The word
"vineyard"
only exempts one who planted a
vineyard.

מנין לרבות חמשה אילני מאכל ואפילו משאר מינין
What is the source that
one who plants
any five fruit trees
is exempt from the army?

The Gemara Answers:
תלמוד לומר אשר נטע
The verse says
"Who planted"

 
The verse says "who planted a vineyard" and not "who a vineyard planted" (both are grammatically correct in Hebrew), so one can read the verse as saying "who planted" ... anything.
 
 
יכול שאני מרבה הנוטע ארבעה אילני מאכל וחמשה אילני סרק תלמוד לומר כרם
However, one who planted
four fruit trees or five not - fruit trees
is not exempt, as the verse says
"vineyard."

 
 
 
רבי אליעזר בן יעקב אומר כרם כמשמעו
Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaakov said that
the word
"vineyard"
implies that only one who planted
a vineyard
is exempt from battle, and not if one planted other trees.

לא חילל ולא חיללו פרט למבריך ולמרכיב
"And did not redeem it"
teaches that one who
layers and grafts trees
is not exempt from the army.

 
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
והא אנן תנן אחד הנוטע ואחד המבריך ואחד המרכיב
But
the Mishna says that
one who plants, layers or grafts
is exempt from the army?

The Gemara Answers:
אמר רבי זירא אמר רב חסדא לא קשיא כאן בהרכבת איסור כאן בהרכבת היתר
Rabbi Zeira said in the name of Rav Chisda that
the Braisa says that
forbidden grafting
does not exempt one from battle, while the Mishna says that
permitted grafting
exempts one from battle.

The Gemara will discuss what constitutes permitted grafting:
האי הרכבת היתר היכי דמי
What sort of permitted grafting
exempts one from the army?

אילימא ילדה בילדה תיפוק לי' דבעי מיהדר משום ילדה ראשונה
It can't
exempt one who grafted a
young
branch
on a young
tree,
for
the young tree itself
exempts
the owner.

 
If the case is a person planted plant A, then (within four years) planted plant B, then grafted a branch from plant B onto plant A, then even if the graft wouldn't exempt its owner from battle, plant A should!
 
 
אלא ילדה בזקינה
Rather,
the exemption is for a
young
tree which was grafted onto an
old tree.

 
So only the graft should exempt the owner.
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
והאמר רבי אבהו ילדה שסיבכה בזקינה בטלה ילדה בזקינה ואין בה דין ערלה
But didn't Rabbi Avahu say that a young
tree
which was grafted onto an old
tree
becomes nullified
to the old tree
and looses its Orlah
designation.

 
So the grafted branch is not considered "young" regarding Orlah laws, and should not exempt its owner.
 
 
Rather, the original answer is correct, and the graft is of a young shoot on a young tree.
 
So why doesn't the original tree exempt the owner from battle?
 
 
אמר רבי ירמיה לעולם ילדה בילדה וכגון דנטע להך קמייתא לסייג ולקורות
Rabbi Yirmiya said that
the first tree was
planted as a fence or
for wood.

דתנן הנוטע לסייג ולקורות פטור מן הערלה
As a
Mishna
teaches, that
a tree
planted for a fence or
for wood
is not liable for Orlah.

 
So the first (young) plant doesn't exempt the owner from battle, but the grafting does.
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
ומאי שנא ילדה בזקינה דבטלה ומאי שנא ילדה בילדה דלא בטלה
Why is a young
shoot
nullified in an old
tree
, but a young
shoot
isn't
nullified a young
tree?

 
The Gemara said earlier that a young shoot gets nullified to its old "host", but just said the young shoot doesn't get nullified to its young host. Why?
 
 
The Gemara Answers:
התם אי מימליך עלה לאו בת מיהדר היא הכא אי מימליך עלה בת מיהדר היא דהא מעיקרא לפירי קיימא
An old shoot
cannot be turned into
a young shoot by thought alone,
while a
young shoot which isn't planted for food
can be turned
into a normal plant,

מידי דהוה אעלו מאיליהן
Since
even a tree which was planted
without any intent
is obligated in Orlah,

דתנן עלו מאיליהן חייבין בערלה
As
a Mishna
teaches that plants that grew on their own are obligated in Orlah.

The Gemara Asks:
ולוקמה בכרם של שני שותפין דהאי הדר אדידיה והאי הדר אדידיה
But why
didn't the Gemara answer that the Mishna's referred to trees that were owned by partners?

 
Young Tree 1 could have been owned by person A (who was exempt from battle), and then B took a shoot and grafted it onto Tree 1, then only the graft would exempt B (since the original Tree 1 wasn't his.)
 
 
The Gemara Answers:
אמר רב פפא זאת אומרת כרם של שני שותפין אין חוזרין עליו מערכי המלחמה
Rav Papa
derived from the Gemara's choice of answer, that
partners
in an orchard aren't exempt
from battle.

 
So the combined (grafted) tree wouldn't exempt anyone, since no individual owns it completely.
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
ומאי שנא מחמשה אחין ומת אחד מהן במלחמה דכולן חוזרין
But
what's the difference between this case and the other case where if someone was killed in battle, his
brothers
get exempt from battle due to their obligation to do Yibum?

 
In the second case, a "partner" seems to have been exempt from battle?
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
התם כל חד וחד קרינא ביה אשתו הכא כל חד וחד לא קרינא ביה כרמו
Regarding Yibum,
every one
of the brothers can call his potential Yevamah
"his wife"
(since she will end up the
complete
wife of one of them), but partners in a
vineyard
cannot call the vineyard theirs, since each person owns a bit in every tree.

The Gemara Answers:
רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר במבריך אילן בירק
Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak said that
the Mishna exempts one who
grafts a tree onto a vegetable
which (on its own) would not exempt one from battle,

והאי תנא הוא
And
he agrees with the following opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Gamliel:

דתניא המבריך אילן בירק רבן שמעון בן גמליאל מתיר משום רבי יהודה בן גמדא איש כפר עכו וחכמים אוסרין
A Braisa
taught that Rabbi Shimon ben Gamliel
said that
Rabbi Yehuda ben Gamza from Kfar Akko permits one to graft a tree into a vegetable, but The Sages forbid.

The Gemara Answers:
כי אתא רב דימי אמר רבי יוחנן הא מני רבי אליעזר בן יעקב היא
Rav Dimi said
(in the name of Rabbi Yochanan) that
Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaakov
never exempts one who grafts from the army, while the Sages do:

לא אמר רבי אליעזר בן יעקב התם כרם כמשמעו הכא נמי נטע כמשמעו נוטע אין מבריך ומרכיב לא
Just as Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaakov said that only
one who plants a
vineyard
is exempt from the army, and
not
one who plants any other trees, so too, only one who
plants
a vineyard is exempt, and not one who
grafts
.

Another six teachings of Rabbi Yochanan:
כי אתא רב דימי אמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי אליעזר בן יעקב ילדה פחותה מטפח חייבת בערלה כל שנותיה דמתחזיא כבת שתא
1.
When Rav Dimi came
from Israel,
he said
the following teaching
in the name of Rabbi Yochanan
(who said it in the name
of Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaakov
)
: A midget tree never
outgrows
Orlah, for it
will always
look like a one year old tree.

 
And one who seen another benefiting from the fruits will think that he's benefiting from Orlah.
 
 
והני מילי שתים כנגד שתים ואחת יוצאה זנב אבל כוליה כרם קלא אית ליה
But this
law is only true
when
its vineyard is of a minimal size
, but
if the midget
vineyard is large
this Halacha does not apply
since people know
that this vineyard is unique.

כי אתא רב דימי אמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי אליעזר בן יעקב מת תופס ארבע אמות לק"ש
לקרית שמע
2.
When Rav Dimi came
from Israel,
he said
the following teaching
in the name of Rabbi Yochanan
(who said it in the name
of Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaakov
)
: A corpse
frees one from saying
Shema
as long as one stands within its
four cubits.

דכתיב לועג לרש חרף עושהו
As
the verse says
"Who mocks the poor blasphemes his Maker."

אמר רבי יצחק אמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי אליעזר בן יעקב חורגתא הגדילה בין האחין אסורה לינשא לאחין דמתחזיא כי אחתייהו
3.
Rabbi Yitzchak said
the following teaching
in the name of Rabbi Yochanan
(who said it in the name
of Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaakov
):
A
wife's daughter
who is raised with her half - brothers is forbidden to marry them, as
people think that she's a true
sister.

ולא היא קלא אית ליה למילתא
However, this is not true, since people
know who's a true sister and who's not.

ואמר רבי יצחק אמר ר'
רבי
יוחנן משום ר'
רבי
אליעזר בן יעקב לקט שכחה ופאה שעשאן בגורן הוקבעו למעשר
4.
Rabbi Yitzchak said
the following teaching
in the name of Rabbi Yochanan
(who said it in the name
of Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaakov
):
One is obligated to separate Maaser on gathered Leket, Shichecha or Peah.

 
Since people think that it's his grain that he planted, and will suspect him of not separating Maaser.
 
 
אמר עולא לא אמרן אלא בשדה אבל בעיר קלא אית ליה למלתא
However,
Ullah said
that this rule only applies to a grain-pile in a
field.
A grain - pile in a city is exempt, though, since his neighbors
know
that it was made from the gifts which he received (which are not obligated in Maaser).

 
Since they saw that he was gathering his grain bit by bit, they know that it must be gifts and not self - planted.
 
 
ואמר רבי יצחק אמר רבי יוחנן משום ר' אליעזר בן יעקב ילדה הפחותה מטפח אינה מקדשת את הזרעים
5.
Rabbi Yitzchak said
the following teaching
in the name of Rabbi Yochanan
(who said it in the name
of Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaakov
:) A grain which: 1. Makes only Rabbinic Kilayim,
and
2.
Is smaller than a Tefach, does not forbid grain
planted near it.

והני מילי שתים כנגד שתים ואחת יוצאה זנב אבל כולי כרם מקדיש
But this is true only if
the "vineyard" was a basic, small, vineyard.
However, if
the vineyard was bigger
, it does.

ואמר רבי יצחק אמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי אליעזר בן יעקב
6.
Rabbi Yitzchak said
the following teaching
in the name of Rabbi Yochanan
(who said it in the name
of Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaakov
):






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