Dedicate Daf 44b to:



שתחילת ניסה נפילה
For the beginning of flights is defeat,

שנאמר נס ישראל לפני פלשתים וגם מגפה גדולה היתה בעם
As
the verse says
"Israel has fled before the Plishtim, and there has been also a great slaughter among the people",

ולהלן הוא אומר וינוסו
אנשי
ישראל מפני פלשתים ויפלו חללים וגו'
And a later
verse
said "Now the Plishtim fought against Israel, and the men of Israel fled from before the Plishtim, and fell slain."

There are two opinions over when do these exemptions not apply:
בד"א
במה דברים אמורים
במלחמות הרשות אבל במלחמות מצוה הכל יוצאין אפילו חתן מחדרו וכלה מחופתה
1.
When
do these exemptions apply?
In optional wars. Everyone,
however, must go out
to a "Mitzvah war", even a bride and groom must leave their Chuppah.

אמר רבי יהודה במה דברים אמורים במלחמות מצוה אבל במלחמות חובה הכל יוצאין אפי'
אפילו
חתן מחדרו וכלה מחופתה:
2.
Rabbi Yehuda said that
these exemptions apply
to a "Mitzvah war". To a mandatory war, even a bride and groom must leave their Chuppah.

 
 
 
Gemara
The Gemara Asks:
מאי איכא בין רבי יוסי לר"י
לרבי יוסי
הגלילי
What is the argument between Rabbi Yossi and Rabbi Yossi HaGalili?

 
Rabbi Yossi HaGalili said that one who sinned is exempt, while Rabbi Yossi said that "a Kohen Gadol who married a widow, a regular Kohen who married a divorcee or a Chalutza, or a
regular
Jew who married a Mamzer or Nasin."
 
Rabbi Yossi seems to just list some sins which would exempt a soldier according to Rabbi Yossi Hagalili.
 
 
The Gemara Answers:
איכא בינייהו עבירה דרבנן
Whether one who violated
a Rabbinic commandment
is exempt from battle.

 
Rabbi Yossi Hagalili said that
anyone
who sinned is exempt, whichever sin it may be, while Rabbi Yossi only listed Biblical sins.
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
כמאן אזלא הא דתניא שח בין תפילה לתפילה עבירה היא בידו וחוזר עליה מעורכי המלחמה
Which
opinion does the following Braisa follow:
One who speaks between placing
the arm
Tefillin and
the head
Tefillin
is a
sinner and returns
home
from battle?

The Gemara Answers:
כמאן כר"י
כרבי יוסי
הגלילי
Rabbi Yossi HaGalili.

The Gemara Asks:
מאן תנא להא דתנו רבנן שמע קול קרנות והרתיע הגפת תריסין והרתיע צחצוח חרבות ומים שותתין לו על ברכיו חוזר
Which
opinion does the following Braisa follow:
One who is in fear from the sounds of horns and from the clanging of shields, or
is in such fear that he
urinates from the sharpening of swords may return
home from battle?

כמאן לימא רבי עקיבא היא ולא רבי יוסי הגלילי
Perhaps
it follows
Rabbi Akiva and not Rabbi Yossi HaGalili?

 
The Gemara is asking if Rabbi Yossi HaGalili was arguing on Rabbi Akiva (that
only
one who sinned is exempt from battle, and not one who is simply scared)?
 
 
The Gemara Answers:
בהא אפי'
אפילו
ר'
רבי
יוסי הגלילי מודה משום דכתיב ולא ימס את לבב אחיו כלבבו:
Rabbi Yossi HaGalili
agrees
that one who is in physical fear is also exempt, as the verse says
"lest his brethren's heart melt as his heart."

 
 
 
:והיה ככלות השוטרים כו':
And when the officers finished speaking..

 
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
האי מפני שתחילת ניסה נפילה מפני שתחילת נפילה ניסה מבעי ליה
Why does the Mishna say
"Because the beginning of flight is defeat",
the point of the Mishna should be that
the beginning of defeat is flight.

The Gemara Answers:
אימא מפני שתחילת נפילה ניסה:
That's true, and the Mishna should be read as
saying that "the beginning of defeat is flight."

 
 
 
:בד"א
במה דברים אמורים
במלחמות הרשות כו':
When is this true, in an optional war...

 
 
 
א"ר
=אמר רבי
יוחנן רשות דרבנן זו היא מצוה דרבי יהודה
Rabbi Yochanan said that an optional
war mentioned by the
Sages is the same
war as a
Mitzvah
war mentioned by Rabbi Yehuda,

מצוה דרבנן זו היא חובה דרבי יהודה
And a
Mitzvah
war mentioned by
the Sages
is the same war
as an obligatory
war mentioned by
Rabbi Yehuda.

 
The same war which the Sages call "optional" (from which a groom is exempt), Rabbi Yehuda calls "Mitzvah".
 
 
אמר רבא מלחמות יהושע לכבש דברי הכל חובה
Rava explains that Yehoshua's war to capture Israel was
called an
obligatory
war,

מלחמות בית דוד לרווחה דברי הכל רשות
And everyone agrees that
King David's wars to expand
Israel
were
called
optional
wars.

כי פליגי למעוטי עובדי כוכבים דלא ליתי עלייהו
The argument
is regarding
preemptive
wars.

מר קרי לה מצוה ומר קרי רשות
Rabbi Yehuda
calls this war a Mitzvah
war, while the Sages
call
this war
an optional
war.

So what's the difference beteen the Sages and Rabbi Yehuda?
The Gemara Answers:
נפקא מינה לעוסק במצוה שפטור מן המצוה:
The practical difference is this battle
exempts one from other Mitzvahs.

 
As a general rule, one who is involved in a Mitzvah does not have to stop to perform another. So if this battle is called a "Mitzvah battle", he's exempt from other Mitzvahs, while if it's an "obligatory war", he's obligated.
 
 
 
Chapter Nine

Mishna
עגלה ערופה בלשון הקודש
The
recital during the
Decapitation of the Heifer
must be in Hebrew:

שנאמר כי ימצא חלל באדמה ויצאו זקניך ושופטיך
As
the verse says
"If one be found slain in the land ... then your elders and your judges shall come forth."

There is an argument as to how many judges must go:
שלשה מבית דין הגדול שבירושלים היו יוצאין
1.
Three from the High Court in Yerushalayim would go.

רבי יהודה אומר חמשה שנאמר זקניך שנים ושופטיך שנים ואין בית דין שקול מוסיפין עליהן עוד אחד
2.
Rabbi Yehuda said that five would go, since
the verse
says "Elders"
(implying
two
),
and "Judges"
(implies another
two
),
and
since a court
can't
have an
even
amount of judges, a fifth judge
must be added.

 
 
 
נמצא טמון בגל או תלוי באילן או צף על פני המים לא היו עורפין
The court would not perform the Calf Decapitation ceremony if the corpse
was found under a pile
of stones,
hanging on a tree, or floating on the water,

שנאמר באדמה ולא טמון בגל נופל ולא תלוי באילן בשדה ולא צף על פני המים
As the verse
says "On the land" - and not
a corpse who was
buried under a pile
of stones.
"Fell" - and not found hanging on a tree. "In the field" - and not floating on water.

 
 
 
נמצא סמוך לספר או לעיר שרובה עובדי כוכבים או לעיר שאין בה ב"ד
=בית דין
לא היו עורפין
The court would not perform the Calf Decapitation ceremony if the corpse
was found next to
1.
The border,
2.
A city which was mostly non - Jewish, or
3.
A city without a court.

 
 
 
=בית דין
אין מודדין אלא לעיר שיש בה ב"ד
As
one measures only from a city with a court.

Gemara
The Gemara Asks:
מאי קאמר
What
is the source that the Decapitated Calf procedure must be in Hebrew?

The Gemara Answers:
אמר ר'
=רבי
אבהו ה"ק
=הכי קאמר
שנאמר וענו ואמרו ולהלן הוא אומר וענו הלוים ואמרו וגו'
Rabbi Avahu said
that the source is a Gezeira Shava between the words
"And they'll speak and say"
(in the context of the Decapitated Calf) and the verse
"And the Levites shall speak, and say"
(in the context of the blessings and curses on Mt. Eival)

מה ענייה האמורה להלן בלשון הקודש אף כאן בלשון הקודש
Just as
the blessings and curses on Mt. Eival were recited
in Hebrew, so too
the Calf Decapitation recital
was in Hebrew.

 
 
 
:וסדר עגלה ערופה כיצד כי ימצא חלל באדמה ויצאו זקניך ושופטיך שלשה מב"ד
=מבית דין
הגדול שבירושלים היו יוצאין רבי יהודה אומר חמשה וכו':
What was the order of the Decapitated Calf
procedure? The verse says
"If one be found slain in the land ... then your elders and your judges shall come forth"
means that
three from the High Court in Jerusalem would go, Rabbi Yehuda said that five would go.

 
 
 
ת"ר
=תנו רבנן
The Sages taught:

ויצאו זקניך ושופטיך זקניך שנים ושופטיך שנים ואין בית דין שקול מוסיפין עליהן עוד אחד הרי כאן חמשה דברי ר'
=רבי
יהודה
Rabbi Yehuda said that five would go, since
the word
"Elders"
implies
two and
the word
"Judges"
implies another
two, and
since a court
can't be even, a fifth
judge must be added.

ר'
=רבי
שמעון אומר זקניך שנים ואין ב"ד
=בית דין
שקול מוסיפין עליהן עוד אחד הרי כאן שלשה
Rabbi Shimon said that
the word
"Elders"
implies
two, and
since a court
can't be even, a third
judge must be add.

The Gemara Asks:
ור'
=ורבי
שמעון נמי הא כתיב ושופטיך
What does
Rabbi Shimon
do with the word
"Judges"?

 
He only expounds the word "Elders".
 
 
The Gemara Answers:
ההוא מיבעי ליה למיוחדין שבשופטיך
He uses it to teach
that these judges must be greatest of the judges
(That is, those sitting on the Head Sanhedrin).

So from where does Rabbi Yehuda learn that these judges must be from those sitting on the Head Sanhedrin?
The Gemara Answers:
ורבי יהודה מזקני זקניך נפקא
Rabbi Yehuda,
on the other hand, derives it from the extra word
"
your
elders".

So why can't Rabbi Shimon derive it from "your elders"?
The Gemara Answers:
ור'
=ורבי
שמעון אי כתב רחמנא זקני הוה אמינא אפי'
=אפילו
זקני השוק כתב רחמנא זקניך ואי כתב רחמנא זקניך הוה אמינא אפי'
=אפילו
סנהדרי קטנה כתב רחמנא ושופטיך למיוחדין שבשופטיך
And Rabbi Shimon
could not derive this law from the extra
your
, since
had the Torah only said "elders" one could think that any old man
could perform the Calf Decapitation ceremony
, and had
the verse only
written "your elders", one could think that
any Sanhedrin may take part, even
the minor Sanhedrin
(comprised of twenty three),
so
the verse
must say "and your judges".

So from where does Rabbi Yehuda derive that the judges must be from the Head Sanhedrin?
The Gemara Answers:
ור'
=ורבי
יהודה גמר זקני זקני מזקני העדה מה להלן מיוחדין שבעדה אף כאן מיוחדין שבעדה
And Rabbi Yehuda derives
that from the Gezeira Shava linking the words
"Elders" and
the verse
"And the elders of the congregation"
(which discusses the Bullock brought for an inadvertently wrong ruling, which is only brought if the ruling was issued by the Head Sanhedrin).

The Gemara Asks:
אי גמר לגמרה לכולה מילתא מהתם זקניך ושופטיך למה לי
So why
doesn't Rabbi Yehuda derive the law that five members are required for the Decapitation ceremony from
that
verse? Why does he use the words
"Elders" and "Judges"?

 
The Gemara in Sanhedrin says that Rabbi Yehuda holds that there needs to be five members of the Sanhedrin involved in the "Bullock inadvertently wrong ruling". So can't the Gezeira Shava be used to require five judges by the Decapitated Calf (instead of using the word "Judges").
 
 
The Gemara Answers:
אלא וי"ו ושופטיך למנינא
Rather,
Rabbi Yehuda never held of this Gezeira Shava , but rather he used the word "your Judges" to teach that these judges must be from the Head Sanhedrin, and he derived that there must be five of them from the extra Vav in the word
"And your judges."

ורבי שמעון
And Rabbi Shimon ...






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Dedicated in loving memory of Leah Rivka Bas Reb Dovid HaKohen A"H.
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