Dedicate Daf 45a to:



וי"ו לא משמע ליה
Doesn't expound Vavs.

 
 
Verse Rabbi Yehuda Rabbi Shimon
Elders +Two Judges +2 Judges
Judges Must Be Members Of Head Sanhedrin Must Be Members Of Head Sanhedrin
Your
Elders
Must Be Members Of Head Sanhedrin Must Be Members Of Head Sanhedrin
Extra "And" in "And your Judges +Two Judges -
 
 
(מאי קאמר רחמנא המיוחדין שבשופטיך)
...

The Gemara Asks:
אלא מעתה ויצאו שנים ומדדו שנים לר'
=לרבי
יהודה הרי כאן תשעה לרבי שמעון הרי כאן שבעה
Why doesn't Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Shimon expound
the verse "then your elders and your judges
shall come forth, and they shall measure"
as teaching that
nine and seven
judges are necessary.

The Gemara Answers:
ההוא מיבעי ליה לכדתניא
Those
extra verses
teach
the following:

ויצאו הן ולא שלוחיהן
"They shall come forth" - and not their emissaries,

ומדדו שאפי'
=שאפילו
נמצא בעליל לעיר היו מודדין שמצוה לעסוק במדידה
"They shall measure" - even if
the corpse
is found next to the city
the court
is required to measure
the distance to all the nearby cities.

מתניתין דלא כר"א
=כרבי אלעזר
בן יעקב
And
This Mishna does not
agree with the following opinion of
Rabbi Elazar ben Yaakov:

דתניא ר'
=דאמר
אליעזר בן יעקב אומר זקניך זו סנהדרין שופטיך זה מלך וכהן גדול
As Rabbi Elazar Ben Yaakov said that "Your elders" refers to the Sanhedrin, and "Your Judges" refers to the King and Kohen Gadol .

מלך דכתיב מלך במשפט יעמיד ארץ
The source that the
the king
must be part of the delegation is from the verse
"The king by justice establishes the land",

כהן גדול דכתיב ובאת אל הכהנים הלוים ואל השופט אשר יהיה וגו'
The source that the
the Kohen Gadol
must be part of the delegation is from the verse
"And you shall come to the Kohanim, the Levites, and to the judge that shall be."

 
The Mishna must argue on Rabbi Elazar Ben Yaakov, as the Mishna does not require the presence of the King and Kohen Gadol .
 
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
איבעיא להו
The question was
raised in the Beis Medrash :

רבי אליעזר בן יעקב במלך וכהן גדול הוא דפליג אבל בסנהדרי אי כרבי יהודה אי כרבי שמעון סבירא ליה
Does Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaakov agree with Rabbi Shimon or Rabbi Yehuda
(that only a portion of the court must go),

או דלמא בסנהדרי נמי פליג עד דאיכא כולה סנהדרי
Or perhaps he argues and requires the
presence of the
whole Sanhedrin?

The Gemara Answers:
אמר רב יוסף ת"ש
=תא שמע
Rav Yosef said that
the answer can be resolved
from the following teaching:

מצאן זקן ממרא אבי פגי והמרה עליהן יכול תהא המראתו המראה תלמוד לומר וקמת ועלית אל המקום מלמד שהמקום גורם
An elder rebelling against the court
(while they are outside of the courtroom)
isn't considered a
Halachic rebellion (which is punishable by death), as the verse says
"then you shall arise and come up to the place",
which implies that a rebellious sage must rebel in the
place
of the courtroom.

 
The Gemara will now prove that...
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
דנפוק כמה
How many left
the courtroom at the time the rebellious sage would argue?

The Gemara will attempt to answer:
אילימא דנפוק מקצתן דלמא הנך דאיכא גואי כוותיה סבירא להו
It couldn't have been
that the Rebellious Sage argued on
some
of the elders,
since the ones behind may
actually agree with the "rebellious sage".

 
 
 
אלא פשיטא דנפוק כולהו
Rather,
the case was
that the whole Sanhedrin
left it's chambers.

 
So the verse teaches that this was a rebellion, but it's not punishable since it didn't happened in the Sanhedrin Chamber.
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
ולמאי
For what
reason did the whole court leave the courtroom?

The Gemara Answers:
אי לדבר הרשות מי מצו נפקי
It
must be for a Mitzvah, since the Sanhedrin is not permitted to leave its chambers without cause,

והכתיב שררך אגן הסהר אל יחסר המזג
As
the verse says
"Your navel round like the moon, wherein no mixed
drink
stops."

שאם נצרך אחד מהם לצאת אם יש שם עשרים ושלשה כנגד סנהדרי קטנה יוצא ואם לאו אינו יוצא
Which teaches that
no
one is permitted to leave if
less than twenty three
members of the Sanhedrin (
the size of a
regular
court
)
remain.

אלא פשיטא לדבר מצוה
Rather,
the Sanhedrin left their chambers
to do a Mitzvah,

למאי
Which
Mitzvah?

לאו למדידת עגלה ורבי אליעזר בן יעקב היא
Is it not
to perform the
measure
ceremony of the Decapitated
Heifer,
which is only necessary according to
Rabbi Eliezer Ben Yaakov?

 
The only time the entire court has to leave its chamber is to perform the Decapitated Heifer ceremony.
 
But according to Rabbi Shimon and Rabbi Yehuda, only five and seven judges are needed (so the rest can stay behind). Must be that there's an opinion which requires the whole court. Which must be Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaakov's opinion.
 
 
The Gemara refutes this position:
א"ל
=אמר ליה
אביי לא דלמא להוסיף על העיר ועל העזרות
Abaye answered
that the Sanhedrin may leave also
to add onto the city
limits of Yerushalayim,

 
So there is another commandment where the whole Sanhedrin is needed - adding onto Yerushalayim. So the verse could be teaching that if a Sage argues on the entire Sanhedrin when they leave to enlarge Yerushalayim, he would be exempt from punishment.
 
 
כדתנן אין מוסיפין על העיר ועל העזרות אלא בבית דין של שבעים ואחד
As a
Mishna
taught, the seventy - one
member Sanhedrin
is required to add onto the city
limits of Yerushalayim.

But the Gemara found a Braisa which says that Rabbi Eliezer Ben Yaakov requires a full Sanhedrin to perform the Decapitated Calf ceremony:
תניא כוותיה דרב יוסף
A Braisa agrees with Rav Yosef
(who says that the whole Sanhedrin must be present by the Decapitated Calf ceremony:)

מצאן אבית פגי והמרה עליהן כגון שיצאו למדידת עגלה או להוסיף על העיר ועל העזרות יכול תהא המראתו המראה ת"ל
=תלמוד לומר
וקמת ועלית מלמד שהמקום גורם:
A Sage rebelling against
the Sanhedrin (outside of the courtroom) (
for example, they left to
perform the
measuring
ceremony
of the
Decapitated
Heifer or
they left
to enlarge
Yerushalayim
) isn't considered a
punishable rebellion, as the verse says
"then you shall arise and come up to the place",
which implies that the Rebellious Sage must rebel in the
place
of the Sanhedrin's courtroom.

 
One of the examples given is the whole Sanhedrin leaving
for the Decapitated Heifer.
 
 
 
:נמצא טמון בגל או תלוי באילן:
If
the corpse
was found under a pile or hanging on a tree.

 
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
לימא מתניתין ר'
=רבי
יהודה היא ולא רבנן
Does this Mishna agree with Rabbi Yehuda
and argue
on the Sages?

דתניא
As a Braisa
was taught:

 
There are two verses being compared here:
 
The first discusses the Decapitated Heifer: "If there be found a slain body on the land that the L - rd your G - d gives you to inherit, fallen in the field, it not being known who killed him, Then there shall go out your elders
the Great Sanhedrin
and your judges, and they shall measure
from the body
to the cities that are around the body
to determine which is closest."
 
The second discusses a forgotten sheaf: "When you reap your harvest in your field, if you forget a sheaf in the field , do not return to take it. To the stranger, to the orphan, and to the widow shall it be, so that the L - rd your G - d will bless you in all the work of your hands."
 
Since both verses talk about objects "in the field," they should be expounded the same way, so ...
 
 
ושכחת עומר בשדה פרט לטמון דברי רבי יהודה
Rabbi Yehuda
interprets the verse
"and forgot a sheaf
in
the field"
to
exclude
a sheaf
buried
in the field,

וחכ"א
=וחכמים אומרים
בשדה לרבות את הטמון
While the Sages
interprets the verse
"
in
the field"
to
include
a sheaf
buried
in the field.

 
So it would imply that (according to the Sages) something buried (such as a corpse) should still be considered
in
the field. So why doesn't the Mishna expound thus?
 
 
The Gemara Answers:
אמר רב אפי'
=אפילו
תימא רבנן הכא מענייניה דקרא התם מענייניה דקרא
Rav said
that
the verses should be interpreted in context:

דכתיב כי ימצא חלל היכא דמשתכח באדמה פרט לטמון
The words
"If one be found slain,"
one may assume that one does the Calf Decapitation
wherever
the corpse
is found,
so the word
"in the land"
must
exclude
a buried corpse,

והתם מענייניה דקרא דכתיב כי תקצור קצירך בשדך ושכחת עומר שכחה דומיא דקציר
While
the words
"When you reap your harvest in your field and forget a sheaf",
one would assume that
the forgetting
must be
in the same
place
as the reaping:

מה קציר בגלוי אף שכחה בגלוי
So just as
one
reaps
what is above ground,
so
too a sheaf is subject to
Shichecha
only applies if one forgot it above ground.

כתב רחמנא בשדה לרבות את הטמון
To avoid this "Hekesh", the verse writes a second
"in the field" to
teach that a buried sheaf is subject to Shichecha.

The Gemara Asks:
לרבי יהודה נמי תיפוק ליה משכחה דומיא דקציר
Why doesn't Rabbi Yehuda
use this Hekesh to prove that
forgetting
must be
in the same
place
as reaping.

The Gemara Answers:
אין הכי נמי
He does,
and the previous derivation was in error.

So According to Rabbi Yehuda:
ואלא בשדה למה לי
So why
does the verse write
"in the field"?

The Gemara Answers:
מיבעי ליה לרבות שכחת קמה
To include
the law of Shichecha of a field.

 
There are two kinds of Shichecha:
 
1. One forgot to harvest a stalk of grain.
2. One forgot to harvest a portion of his field.
 
 
So Rabbi Yehuda uses the word "In the field" to teach that there is this second type of Shichecha.
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
ורבנן שכחת קמה מנא להו
What's the Sages'
source
for
the law of Shichecha of a field?

The Gemara Answers:
נפקא להו מכי תקצור קצירך בשדך
They learn it from "your harvest in your field,
and have forgot a sheaf".

So why doesn't Rabbi Yehuda use that verse?
The Gemara Answers:
ור'
=ורבי
יהודה מיבעי ליה לכדרבי אבהו אמר ר'
=רבי
אלעזר
Rabbi Yehuda
uses that Hekesh
for the teaching of Rabbi Avahu in the name of Rabbi Elazar:

דאמר רבי אבהו אמר ר"א
=רבי אלעזר
פרט לשצפו עומרין לתוך שדה חבירו
As Rabbi Avahu said in the name of Rabbi Elazar that
stalks of grain that flew to a neighbor's
field
are exempt from Shichecha.

And how do The Sages derive that law?
The Gemara Answers:
ורבנן מבשדה בשדך
The Sages learn that law from
the extra
"you" in "
your
field".

So why doesn't Rabbi Yehuda derive it from there?
The Gemara Answers:
ור'
=ורבי
יהודה בשדה בשדך לא משמע ליה
Rabbi Yehuda doesn't
expound the extra "you".

 
 
Verse Rabbi Yehuda The Sages
"In the field" To include Shichecha of a field To include a sheaf buried in the field.
"your harvest in your field" Stalks of grain that flew to a neighbor's field are exempt from Shichecha. The law of Shichecha of a field.
The extra "you" in "your field" Doesn't expound Stalks of grain that flew to a neighbor's field are exempt from Shichecha
 
The Gemara Asks:
בעי ר'
=רבי
ירמיה צפו עומרין לתוך שדהו מהו אויר שדה כשדה דמי או לאו כשדה דמי
Rabbi Yirmiya asked if stalks which flew into his
own
field
(but are resting on something) are subject to Shichecha. Since if
the airspace of one's field is considered "his field",
it's considered to be resting on the ground and is subject to Shichecha.

The Gemara Answers:
א"ל
=אמר ליה
רב כהנא לרב פפי ואמרי לה רב כהנא לרב זביד תפשוט ליה מדרבי אבהו א"ר
=אמר רבי
אלעזר דאמר פרט לשצפו עומרין לתוך שדה חבירו דחבירו אין לתוך שדהו לא
Rav Kahana told Rav Pappi, and some say that Rav Kahana told Rav Zvid, that one can answer
this question
from
the teaching of
Rabbi Avahu in the name of Rabbi Elazar, who said that stalks of grain which flew into a
neighbors'
field
are not subject to Shichecha. Implying that if the sheafs fly into one's own, they are subject.

The Gemara Asks:
וליטעמיך לתוך שדה חבירו צפו אין מונחין לא
But according
to this logic (if that teaching is that precise), perhaps a sheaf shouldn't be subject to Shichecha
only when it
flew
to one's neighbor's field, but if the sheaf
was placed there,
it should apply.

 
And that can't be, since ...
 
 
והא בעינן בשדך וליכא
The sheaf must be
in his field
for Shichecha to apply.

 
And even if the sheaf was
placed
onto a something in a neighbor's field, Shichecha shouldn't apply.
 
 
The Gemara Answers:
אלא לתוך שדה חבירו ואפילו מונחין
Rather,
Shichecha doesn't apply to grain
even if they were
placed
on a neighbor's field.

והאי דקאמר צפו דלא משכחת לה אלא בצפו
And the reason Rabbi Avahu used the term
"flew"
is because that's the only way for grain to reach the other field.

 
But the law that it has to fly into a
neighbor's
field (and not one's own) is precise.
 
 
 
The Gemara attempts another proof:
תא שמע עומר שהחזיק בו להוליכו לעיר והניחו על גבי חבירו ושכחו
The Sages taught
that if one forget sheafs of grain (which one was transporting) on another,

התחתון שכחה והעליון אינו שכחה
The bottom
sheaf
is Shichecha but the top isn't.

רבי שמעון בן יהודה אומר משום רבי שמעון שניהם אינן שכחה
Rabbi Shimon ben Yehuda said in the name of Rabbi Shimon that neither are Shichecha.

התחתון מפני שהוא טמון והעליון מפני שהוא צף
The bottom one
isn't Shichecha because it's
"buried" and the top
sheaf isn't Shichecha
because it's "floating."

עד כאן לא פליגי אלא בתחתון אבל בעליון דברי הכל לא הואי שכחה
While they argue over
whether
the bottom
sheaf is subject to Shichecha
, they agree that the top
sheaf
isn't.

 
Why?
 
Presumably since it was placed on another sheaf and not on the ground. This should prove that the field's airspace doesn't qualify as "on the ground".
 
 
The Gemara rejects this answer:
שאני התם כיון דאחזיק ביה זכה ביה
Once
the original owner
acquired
a sheaf, it doesn't become Shichecha.

 
The case was where the owner was
transporting his sheaf
, so it's not subject to the rules of Shichecha.
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
אי הכי מאי איריא על גבי חבירו אפילו בשדה נמי
So why
does the Braisa use the case where the sheafs
were on top of each other? Why
not give a regular case where the sheafs
were in the field?

 
Since the sheafs are exempt from Shichecha only because they were already acquired, there would not be a legal difference if the sheafs were on the ground or on each other.
 
 
The Gemara Answers:
אין הכי נמי
That is true,

והאי דקתני על גבי חבירו
So why does
the Braisa
teach
that the sheafs were placed on
top of
each other
?

משום תחתון
To teach the argument about
the bottom
sheaf.

 
The case was where the top sheaf was acquired and the bottom one wasn't. So the top is clearly exempt from Shichecha, and the argument is whether the bottom (sheaf) is subject.
 
 
But this doesn't answer the original question: Does a sheaf have to rest
on the ground
?
 
 
The Gemara Asks:
והא מפני שהוא צף קאמר
But the Braisa says that the
reason
the top sheaf is not subject to Shichecha is because
it's floating,
and not because it was already acquired!

The Gemara Answers:
אימא מפני שהוא כצף
Rather, say that
once a sheaf is acquired, it's
considered
to be
floating
(in the owners hands), and is not subject to Shichecha.

The Gemara Asks:
אמר אביי הריני כבן עזאי בשוקי טבריא
Abaye said that
he's as sharp as
Ben Azzai was in the Tiberius marketplace:

אמר ליה ההוא מדרבנן לאביי שני חללים זה על גבי זה מהיכן הוא מודד
One of the sages asked him that if two corpses are found one on top the other, from which
should one
measure
the Decapitated Heifer?

מין במינו הוי טמון ומין במינו לא הוי צף ומעליון מודד
Should we say that while one corpse
"buries"
another corpse, a corpse doesn't
"float"
another corpse,
so one measures from the top one,

או דלמא מין במינו הוי צף ומין במינו לא הוי טמון ומתחתון מודד
Or perhaps should we say that while one corpse doesn't
"bury"
another corpse, a corpse does
"float"
another corpse,
so one measures from the bottom one,

או דלמא מין במינו הוי טמון ומין במינו הוי צף ולא מתחתון מודד ולא מעליון מודד
Or perhaps should we say that one corpse both
"buries"
another corpse, and
"floats"
the other corpse
, so one measures from neither
(or perhaps one measures from both).

The Gemara Answers:
א"ל
=אמר ליה
Abaye
answered
back:






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