Dedicate Daf 7a to:

יש לה עדים במדינת הים
overseas witnesses?

The same concern applies here: If a woman survived the Sotah test, people will presume guilt, saying that witnesses may have protected her?
The Gemara Answers:
לא שכיחא
Oversees witnesses
are not common
,and no one will suspect a vindicated Sotah of surviving due to them.


The Mishna asks:
כיצד עושה לה
is the procedure for the husband to test his wife?

The Mishna answers:
מוליכה לבית דין שבאותו מקום
He takes her to the local court.

ומוסרין לו שני תלמידי חכמים שמא יבא עליה בדרך
Discussed in Gemara
The court
them to Yerushalayim, and sends along with them
two Torah scholars, lest he have relations with
his wife
on the way.

רבי יהודה אומר בעלה נאמן עליה
Discussed in Gemara Rabbi Yehuda said that the husband is trusted
to take her to Yerushalayim alone.

תרי ואיהו הא תלתא
Two and
the husband
make three.

The Gemara Asks:
לימא מסייע לי' לרב
Can one
say that
this Mishna
supports Rav's opinion?

דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב לא שנו אלא בעיר אבל בדרך עד דאיכא שלשה
For Rav Yehuda said in the name of Rav, that only in the city
do two men stop Yichud,
but when traveling, three
are required,

There is a prohibition for a man to be secluded with any woman who is not his wife, as the Torah is concerned that one may come to have illicit relations with her. The Gemara says that if two men are together, each one will guard the other from sinning.
Rebbi says that while this is true in a city, where a stranger can always come in, in a field one needs three. The reason is that he's concerned that ...
שמא יצטרך אחד מהן לנקביו ונמצא אחד מהן מתייחד עם הערוה
Since if one of them needs
to use the restroom,
the other one will
be secluded with a
forbidden woman.

So if one goes to the restroom, there will be two men left behind, each one guarding the other from sinning.
The Gemara presumes that the reason the Mishna requires two Torah scholars to escort the husband is so that if any one of the three would need the restroom, there would be two left to guard each other.
The Gemara Answers:

הכא היינו טעמא כי היכי דליהוו עליה סהדי
that the Mishna requires three men
is so that they may testify against
the husband if he had relations with his wife while traveling.

The Gemara notices another point:
תלמידי חכמים אין כולי עלמא לא
Only Torah scholars are sent, but not regular people.

לימא מסייע ליה לאידך דרב
Can one
say that this
supports the other opinion of Rav?

דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב לא שנו אלא כשרין אבל פרוצין אפילו עשרה נמי לא
As Rav Yehuda said in the name of Rav, that for regular people
two stop Yichud,
but even ten immoral
men are forbidden to be secluded with a woman.

מעשה היה והוציאוה עשרה במטה
As there was a case where ten
took out
a woman
in a bed
to have relations with her.

While Torah scholars won't get involved in immorality, a regular person may not be able to control himself even around others, as the story above showed.
Is that why the Mishna requires Torah scholars to escort the husband, since regular people aren't trusted?
The Gemara Answers:

הכא היינו טעמא דידעי לאתרויי ביה
Here the reason
Torah scholars are required
is so that they will know to warn
the husband that having relations with his wife will invalidate the test.

And if they did have relations, they'll be able to testify that to the court.
:רבי יהודה אומר בעלה וכו':
Discussed in Mishna Rabbi Yehuda said that her husband is believed

The Gemara will now discuss the argument between Rabbi Yehuda and the Sages:
תניא רבי יהודה אומר
Rabbi Yehuda
taught in a Braisa:

בעלה נאמן מקל וחומר
The Torah believes that
her husband
did not have relations with his suspected wife
due to a logical inference:

ומה נדה שהיא בכרת בעלה נאמן עליה סוטה שהיא בלאו לא כל שכן
If a husband is trusted
to keep the laws of
Niddah, whose punishment is Kares, all the more so he should be trusted to keep
the laws of Sotah
(which is a

The Gemara Asks:
why don't
the Sages

The Gemara Answers:
היא הנותנת
The very reason Rabbi Yehuda trusts the husband, the Sages don't:

נדה דכרת חמירא ליה ומהימן סוטה דלאו לא חמירא ליה ולא מהימן
The Torah
the husband to keep the laws of Niddah
the laws
are strict
and punishable
by Kares.
In contrast, the husband
is not
trusted to keep the laws of the Sotah
the prohibition of the husband to live with his wife when she is a
Sotah is not so strict and is a

The Gemara shows that there are two contradictory sources brought for Rabbi Yehuda:
ורבי יהודה מק"ו
=מקל וחומר
מייתי לה והא רבי יהודה מקראי מייתי לה
But does Rabbi Yehuda prove from a
logical argument that a husband bringing his wife to Yerushalayim does not need an escort from the Beis Din
? He proves it from a verse!

For a Braisa taught:

There are three opinions mentioned:
והביא האיש את אשתו אל הכהן
"And the husband will bring his wife to the Kohen."

מן התורה האיש מביא את אשתו אבל אמרו חכמים מוסרין לו שני תלמידי חכמים שמא יבא עליה בדרך
1. This verse teaches that according to
, a man can bring his
to Jerusalem alone
, but the Sages decreed that two Torah scholars must
escort them to prevent them from
having relations on the way.

רבי יוסי אומר בעלה נאמן עליה מקל וחומר
Rabbi Yossi said that her husband is trusted
to bring his wife to Jerusalem alone,
due to
the following
logical inference:

ומה נדה שהיא בכרת בעלה נאמן עליה סוטה שהיא בלאו לא כ"ש
=כל שכן
If a husband is trusted
to keep the laws of
Niddah, whose punishment is Kares, all the more so he should be trusted to keep
the laws of Sotah
(which is a

אמרו לו לא
The Sages responded
that the logic is faulty:

For two reasons:
אם אמרת בנדה שכן יש לה היתר תאמר בסוטה שאין לה היתר
1. Can one apply the same logic would apply about
a Niddah (which will be permitted
to her husband after she becomes pure
) to a Sotah (which may never be permitted
to her husband)?

ואומר מים גנובים ימתקו וגו
And moreover "Stolen waters are sweet."

Since one desires forbidden relations more than permitted relations, the husband has an craving to make his wife forbidden to him forever. One way of accomplishing this is by being intimate with her on the way.
The Gemara will now cite the third opinion, that of Rabbi Yehuda:
יהודה אומר מן התורה האיש מביא את אשתו אל הכהן שנא'
והביא האיש את אשתו
Rabbi Yehuda said that one is trusted to bring his wife to Yerushalayim, as
the verse
says "and the man shall bring his wife".

Opinion Escorts Required
Tanna Kamma Rabbinically
Rabbi Yossi Yes
Rabbi Yehuda No
Here, Rabbi Yehuda derives that one is trusted to bring his wife to Jerusalem from a verse, while in the Braisa, he derived it from logic!
The Gemara Answers:
אמר להו קל וחומר ברישא ופרכוה והדר אמר להו קרא
Rabbi Yehuda first
said a logical inference, the logical inference was refuted, so he brought a verse.

The Gemara Asks:
רבי יהודה היינו תנא קמא
Rabbi Yehuda's opinion is
the same as
that of the Tanna Kamma !

Both seem to agree that one does not need to bring escorts to Yerushalayim.
The Gemara Answers:
איכא בינייהו אבל אמרו
The difference is "that they said."

According to the Tanna Kamma , there's a Rabbinic enactment requiring Rabbinic escorts, while according to Rabbi Yehuda, there isn't.

היו מעלין אותה לבית דין הגדול שבירושלים
Discussed in Gemara
The husband
would bring
his wife
to the High Court in Yerushalayim,

ומאיימין עליה כדרך שמאיימין על עדי נפשות
Discussed in Gemara
And the court
would pressure her
to admit her guilt the same way the court
pressures witnesses
of capital crimes.

ואומר לה
The agents of the court
would tell her
(in an attempt to get her to admit her sin, she will not perish):

בתי הרבה יין עושה
My daughter, wine does much,

הרבה שחוק עושה
Laughter does much,

הרבה ילדות עושה
Childishness does much,

הרבה שכנים הרעים עושין
Bad neighbors do much.

עשי לשמו הגדול שנכתב בקדושה שלא ימחה על המים
Admit your guilt
for the sake of the great name which was written in holiness,
so that
it will not be erased

ואומר לפניה דברים שאינם כדי לשומען היא וכל משפחת בית אביה
Discussed in Gemara
The agent
would tell her
which were not appropriate for either her or her whole father's house to hear.

אם אמרה טמאה אני שוברת כתובתה ויוצאת
If she
admitted her sin, the couple
would divorce and
the husband would write
a receipt for her Kesuba.

ואם אמרה טהורה אני
Discussed in Gemara If she said that
she's innocent,

מעלין אותה לשער המזרח שעל פתח שער נקנור
They would take her up to the eastern gate
of the Temple Mount, and from there
to the Nikanor gate,

ששם משקין את הסוטות ומטהרין את היולדות ומטהרין את המצורעין
Discussed in Gemara For
that is where
they would make the Sotahs drink,
that is where
they would purify mothers
shortly after birth and that is where
they would purify the Metzora.

וכהן אוחז בבגדיה
Discussed in Gemara A Kohen would grab her garments,

אם נקרעו נקרעו ואם נפרמו נפרמו
If they ripped, they ripped,

עד שהוא מגלה את לבה וסותר את שערה
Until he would uncover her heart and undo her hair.

רבי יהודה אומר אם היה לבה נאה לא היה מגלהו ואם היה שערה נאה לא היה סותר
Discussed in Gemara Rabbi Yehuda said that if her chest was comely, he wouldn't reveal it, and if her hair was comely, he wouldn't undo it.

היתה מתכסה בלבנים מכסה בשחורים
Discussed in Gemara If she was
she'd be dressed in black

היה עליה כלי זהב
Discussed in Gemara If there was gold jewelry on her,

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