Dedicate Daf 8b to:

דרבנן אדרבנן נמי לא קשיא
the Sages also do not contradict themselves,

The Gemara Answers:
הכא טעמא מאי משום ונוסרו כל הנשים
As the the Sotah must be disheveled to instill
of immodesty
into all women.

Even if they were innocent and survive the test, they will be still be publicly humiliated for illicitly secluding themselves.
התם אין לך ייסור גדול מזה
And there is no need to instill fear over execution as nothing instills
fear more than

Opinion Execution Sotah Reason why execution may / may not be done naked
Rabbi Yehuda Naked Clothed , which is only a concern if the subject remains alive.
The Sages Clothed Naked
The Gemara Asks:
וכי תימא לעביד בה תרתי
So why
not instill fear through disheveling her
executing her?

The Gemara Answers:
אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה אמר קרא ואהבת לרעך כמוך
Rav Nachman said in the name of Rabbah bar Avuha, the verse says "And you will love your neighbor as yourself".

ברור לו מיתה יפה
Which also means, one should
choose him the nicest
and most painless
as one Halachically may.

So since one doesn't have to humiliate one about to be executed, one is not permitted to humiliate her.
The Gemara Asks:
לימא דרב נחמן תנאי היא
Must one
say that Rav Nachman
's opinion is
the subject of a Tannaic argument?

The Sages said that a woman is stoned clothed because we choose the most (emotionally and physically) painless death possible, so if we don't have to disrobe her, we won't.
But Rabbi Yehuda says that the court does disrobe a woman prior to stoning. Is it because he holds that one doesn't have to choose the most painless method of death?
The Gemara Answers:

דכולי עלמא אית להו דרב נחמן והכא בהא קמיפלגי
Both Rabbi Yehuda and The Sages
agree with Rav Nachman
(that one should choose a painless death)
, but they argue about the following:

מר סבר בזיוניה עדיף ליה טפי מצערא דגופיה
The Sages say
that disgrace is worse than pain.

ומר סבר צערא דגופיה עדיף ליה טפי מבזיוניה
While Rabbi Yehuda says that
pain is worse than disgrace.

Stoning one clothed is more painful, for it cushions the blow and prolongs death, but is more honorable.
The Sages says that one would prefer to die with honor but with a bit more pain, so the most "painless" form of death is clothed, while Rabbi Yehuda says that one would prefer to die quickly and painlessly even if it's dishonorable, so the most "painless" form of death is unclothed.
Opinion Execution Sotah Reason why execution may / may not be done naked Reason why execution
/ should not be done naked
Rabbi Yehuda Naked Clothed , which is only a concern if the subject remains alive. Clothes prolongs suffering.
The Sages Clothed Naked Clothes add honor (which overrides suffering).
:היתה מכוסה לבנים וכו':
Discussed in Mishna If she was

תנא אם היו שחורים נאים לה מכסין אותה בגדים מכוערים
A Braisa said
that if black
look nice on her, they would cover her in ugly clothes.

:היו עליה כלי זהב וכו':
Discussed in Mishna If she was covered in gold etc.

The Gemara Asks:
This is obvious!

השתא נוולי מנוויל לה
If the court is
disgracing her,
all the more so it wouldn't let her keep her jewels!

The Gemara Answers:
הני מיבעיא
This teaching
is necessary.

מהו דתימא בהני אית לה בזיון טפי
I would have thought that
wearing jewelry while naked
is more disgraceful
than just being naked.

כדאמרי אינשי שליח ערטיל וסיים מסאני
As people
laugh at
"A naked man with shoes".

So one would think that one should leave her jewelry on her.
=קא משמע לן
The Mishna
teaches that
nonetheless, the court does make her take off her jewelry.

:ואחר כך מביא חבל וכו':
Discussed in Mishna After that, they would bring an Egyptian rope.

The Gemara Asks:
בעא מיניה רבי אבא מרב הונא
Rabbi Abba asked from Rav Huna:

חבל המצרי מהו שיעכב בסוטה
Is the Egyptian rope mandatory
or optional?

What should the court do if they don't have an Egyptian rope available? Do they have to get it shipped in from Egypt? Or may they use another rope?
משום שלא ישמטו בגדיה מעליה הוא ובצלצול קטן נמי סגי
If it's brought
so her clothes won't slip off,
small belt
is acceptable,

או דילמא משום דאמר מר היא חגרה לו בצלצול לפיכך כהן מביא חבל המצרי וקושר לה למעלה מדדיה מעכב
Or perhaps one
the belt is a punishment: Just as
she tied
her adulterer's
belt, a Kohen ties an Egyptian rope above her breasts.
Therefore, the Egyptian rope
is mandatory
and may not be replaced with any other belt.

The Gemara Answers:
=אמר ליה
תניתוה ואח"כ
=ואחר כך
מביא חבל המצרי וקושרו לה למעלה מדדיה כדי שלא ישמטו בגדיה מעליה
Rav Huna answered back:
that "After that, he brings an Egyptian rope and ties it above her breasts so the clothes don't slip off",

The Mishna explicitly states the reason for the belt - it's so the Sotah's garment doesn't slip off, so any belt would work.
:וכל הרוצה לראות בה יראה וכו':
Discussed in Mishna All those who want to watch may do so

The Gemara Asks:
הא גופא קשיא
There is a contradiction
in the Mishna:

אמרת כל הרוצה לראות בה רואה אלמא לא שנא גברי ולא שנא נשי
First, the Mishna
that all who want to watch may come,
which implies that both
men and women
may watch,

והדר תני כל הנשים מותרות לראותה נשים אין אנשים לא
But then the Mishna
that all
may come and watch,
which implies that
only women
may watch the Sotah test and
and not men.

The Gemara cites two answers:
אמר אביי תרגמה אנשים
Abaye said that
when the first part of the Mishna says "all", it only means that all
may watch.

אמר ליה רבא והא כל הרוצה לראות בה רואה קתני
But Rava
the Mishna explicitly states that
who want may come and watch
(implying both men and women.)

אלא אמר רבא כל הרוצה לראות בה רואה לא שנא גברי ולא שנא נשי
Rava answers that all
(men and women)
who want to watch, close
But don't have to
may watch.

ונשים חייבות לראותה שנאמר ונוסרו כל הנשים ולא תעשינה כזמתכנה:
But women
watch, as
the verse
says "that all women may be taught not to do after your lewdness."

Opinion Men Women
Abaye Forbidden Permitted
Rava Permitted Mandated

במדה שאדם מודד בה מודדין לו
The measure a person measures is measured back to him:

The Mishna will now enumerate three ways how the Sotah is punished, measure for measure:
היא קשטה את עצמה לעבירה המקום נוולה
She beautified herself for sin, so Hashem disgraced her.

היא גלתה את עצמה לעבירה המקום גלה עליה
She revealed herself for sin, so Hashem revealed her.

בירך התחילה בעבירה תחילה ואחר כך הבטן
Discussed in Gemara
She sinned with her thigh and then with her stomach
(her "thigh" benefited from her adulterer before her "stomach"),

לפיכך תלקה הירך תחילה ואחר כך הבטן
So her
starts with her thigh and finishes with her stomach.

ושאר כל הגוף לא פלט
And the rest of her body is not saved.

אמר רב יוסף אף על גב דמדה בטילה במדה לא בטיל
Rav Yosef said that even though
court imposed
punishments ceased, the parallel
heavenly punishments
did not cease.

דאמר רב יוסף וכן תני ר'
חייא מיום שחרב בהמ"ק
=בית המקדש
=אף על פי
שבטלה סנהדרי ארבע מיתות לא בטלו
As Rav Yosef taught, as did Rabbi Chiya, that even after the Beis Hamikdash was destroyed
(and the Sanhedrin left the Beis Hamikdash grounds)
, the four death penalties
did not cease.

The Gemara Asks:
והא בטלו
But they

A court may impose the death penalties only as long as the Sanhedrin sits in the Temple Mount.
Forty years before the destruction of the Beis Hamikdash (when murderers ), the Sanhedrin left their chamber specifically to end capital punishment.
The Gemara Answers:
אלא דין ארבע מיתות לא בטלו
Rather, while the court imposed punishments did cease, the Heavenly
four death penalties did not cease:

מי שנתחייב סקילה או נופל מן הגג או חיה דורסתו
One who is liable for stoning, either close
Which is how stoning was performed in the court
falls off a roof or is close
Which is like stoning, as the animal
pushes him to the ground
devoured by a wild animal.

מי שנתחייב שריפה או נופל בדליקה או נחש מכישו
One who is liable for burning, either falls into a fire or is close
him from the inside,
bitten a snake

מי שנתחייב הריגה או נמסר למלכות או ליסטין באין עליו
One who is liable for decapitation, is either
executed by the
Which tended to execute people through decapitation
government or
is decapitated
by robbers,

מי שנתחייב חניקה או טובע בנהר או מת בסרונכי
One who is liable for strangulation will either drown in a river or die from close
A fatal throat disease
Srunchi. .

A Braisa
was taught:

היה רבי אומר מנין שבמדה שאדם מודד בה מודדין לו
cited for the source
that one is punished
the measure he measures:

שנאמר בסאסאה בשלחה תריבנה
The verse
says "In
the same
lit. Se'ah
, You send her away".

The Gemara Asks:
אין לי אלא סאה מנין לרבות תרקב וחצי תרקב קב וחצי קב רובע וחצי רובע תומן ועוכלא מנין
This proves
for a close
A large unit
(a large sin)
. How do we know that it also applies to a Tarkov, a half a Tarkov, a Kav, a half of a Kav, a Rova, a half of a Rova, a Tuman , and a Ukla
(small measurements)?

One could have thought that since these sins are so light, Hashem won't punish one for violating them.
The Gemara Answers:
תלמוד לומר כי כל סאון סואן ברעש
The verse
says "For every close
lit. Se'ah
boot stamped with fierceness."

The Gemara Asks:
ומנין שכל פרוטה ופרוטה מצטרפת לחשבון גדול
How do we know that
(sins) accrue
together amounts to a great sum

And one may not be punished immediately. Rather, Hashem minds the punishment until all the small sins grow into a large punishment.
The Gemara give another explanation to these three verses.
The Gemara Answers:
תלמוד לומר אחת לאחת למצוא חשבון
The verse
says "adding one thing to another, to find out the account".

וכן מצינו בסוטה שבמדה שמדדה בה מדדו לה
And so too, a Sotah
punished measure for measure:

Similar to what the Mishna .
היא עמדה על פתח ביתה ליראות לו
she stood at the door of her house to see
her adulterer

לפיכך כהן מעמידה על שער נקנור ומראה קלונה לכל
The Kohen places her in the Gate of Nikanor and shows her disgrace to all.

היא פרסה לו סודרין נאין על ראשה
she placed beautiful kerchiefs on her head
for her adulterer

לפיכך כהן נוטל כפה מעל ראשה ומניחו תחת רגליה
The Kohen removes her cap and places it under her feet.

היא קשטה לו פניה לפיכך
she prettied her face,

Translation copyright by the OpenGemara project. If you would like permission to use our data, please contact us

Last build: ldb-5030086:lbc-6daa664:lsc-fe49e21